Many other kinds of machines were used in gold mining to move the gold-bearing quartz to the place where it could be processed, and to move the waste material – all the other rock – out of the way of the work.

A windlass held a bucket on a rope attached to a crankshaft, much like a bucket in a water well. In shallower shafts, the crank was turned by hand, but as mines got deeper miners would use either a whip or a whim. Both of these machines were based on much the same principle as the windless but had stronger cables and pulleys. Horses or steam engines were needed for power. All of the rock that was dug out of the mine was brought to the surface this way, but in some cases the miners themselves rode up and down the mine shaft sitting in the bucket!
Art Gallery of Nova Scotia, Dian Day, Susan Sellers, Rita Wilson

Nova Scotia, CANADA
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