What a city we have given over to plunder and destruction!

Sultan Muhammed II

In 1453, after years of vicious conflict between Muslims and Christians, Sultan Mohammed II successfully attacked one of the most sacred cities in Christendom - Constantinople. As his armies broke through the city’s walls, a whole set of Christian beliefs concerning war had also begun to shatter and disintegrate. It took almost a century, but at the Augsburg Confession of 1530, Christian thinkers formulated an understanding of war fundamentally different from that which obtained during the Crusades. The Christian Crusades had glorified the idea of warring for the sake of Christ; but at the Augsburg Confession, Christians followed Luther in asserting that the responsibilities of Christian and citizen, of Church and State, should be separate. Christians could still fight, but they could no longer justify fighting in the name of Jesus, the Prince of Peace.
Canadian Heritage Information Network, The Provincial Museum of Alberta,

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