One thousand years ago, the first Europeans landed at L’Anse-aux-Meadows, Newfoundland, where the Beothuks lived. The Newfoundland Museum in St. John’s has designed Full Circle, a travelling exhibition that evokes the contact between these two peoples. The exhibition toured Canadian museums until April 2002.

Who were the first Europeans to land in Newfoundland?
One thousand years ago, the first Europeans landed at L’Anse-aux-Meadows, Newfoundland, where the Beothuks lived. The Newfoundland Museum in St. John’s has designed Full Circle, a travelling exhibition that evokes the contact between these two peoples. The exhibition toured Canadian museums until April 2002.

Who were the first Europeans to land in Newfoundland?

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Sod Houses

Sod houses at L'Anse aux Meadows camp, Newfoundland

Newfoundland Museum

© Newfoundland Museum


One hundred thousand years ago, our ancestors walked out of their African homeland to explore and settle the rest of the world. The paths they chose were to lead them to all corners of the earth. While some tribes turned left into Europe, others turned right into Asia. It was not long before the descendants of those who turned left ran into the uncrossable barrier of the Atlantic Ocean.

The descendants of those who turned right found a larger world at their feet. The path led them across Asia and to the narrow Bering Strait - the gateway to North America. When these people set foot on the island of Newfoundland 5,000 years ago, they could not have known that they stood on the other side of the Atlantic barrier.

It would be the Vikings who would close the circle. Driven by ambition and a need to find new lands, they ventured farther and farther from mainland Europe in sturdy, ocean going knarrs. Their journey brought them from Scandinavia first to the Orkneys and Faeroes, then Iceland, then Greenland...

In the early summer of the year 1000, Leif Ericson and his crew sailed from Greenland to explore a land hidden in the distant mists. What the Viking Read More
One hundred thousand years ago, our ancestors walked out of their African homeland to explore and settle the rest of the world. The paths they chose were to lead them to all corners of the earth. While some tribes turned left into Europe, others turned right into Asia. It was not long before the descendants of those who turned left ran into the uncrossable barrier of the Atlantic Ocean.

The descendants of those who turned right found a larger world at their feet. The path led them across Asia and to the narrow Bering Strait - the gateway to North America. When these people set foot on the island of Newfoundland 5,000 years ago, they could not have known that they stood on the other side of the Atlantic barrier.

It would be the Vikings who would close the circle. Driven by ambition and a need to find new lands, they ventured farther and farther from mainland Europe in sturdy, ocean going knarrs. Their journey brought them from Scandinavia first to the Orkneys and Faeroes, then Iceland, then Greenland...

In the early summer of the year 1000, Leif Ericson and his crew sailed from Greenland to explore a land hidden in the distant mists. What the Vikings discovered was a vast wilderness already inhabited by aboriginal people they called Skraelings . After one hundred thousand years, the descendants of the people who turned right were about to meet up with the descendants of the people who turned left.

Humanity had come full circle.

As the islands of the North Atlantic were uninhabited before the arrival of the Vikings, Newfoundland and Labrador presented the explorers with a new challenge. The Skraelings referred to by the Vikings c. A.D. 1000 were probably the Recent Indian peoples, which include Innu ancestors in Labrador, Beothuk ancestors in Newfoundland and the ancestors of the Mi’kmaq people in the St. Lawrence and Maritime provinces. Skraeling also refers to the Inuit in Greenland and the high Arctic in A.D. 1200-1400, and probably the Dorset Palaeo-Eskimos, c. A.D.1000 in the high Arctic. All of these people, from the high Arctic to the Maritime region, were hunter-gatherers and hunter-fishers.

The Viking Sagas describe the meetings between the two cultures as fleeting - sometimes peaceful and sometimes violent. Within two decades, the Vikings retreated from their L’Anse aux Meadows camp back to Greenland. The reasons behind the abandonment can only be speculated.

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

The first Europeans to land in Newfoundland were:

1. Vikings
2. Basques
3. Normans
The first Europeans to land in Newfoundland were:

1. Vikings
2. Basques
3. Normans

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

In 1720, Europeans began to settle on an island then called Isle St-Jean. By this point, the Micmacs had inhabited the island for nearly 2000 years. The Prince Edward Island Acadian Museum tells the history of the island’s Francophone community that is now almost 300 years old.

In the Micmac language, what does "cadie" mean?
In 1720, Europeans began to settle on an island then called Isle St-Jean. By this point, the Micmacs had inhabited the island for nearly 2000 years. The Prince Edward Island Acadian Museum tells the history of the island’s Francophone community that is now almost 300 years old.

In the Micmac language, what does "cadie" mean?

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

The Italian explorer, Giovanni Verrazano, is credited with the origin of the place name "Acadie". It was during a voyage of discovery, commissioned by the King of France in 1524, that Verrazano gave the name "Arcadia" to the region on the Atlantic coast which corresponds to present-day Virginia. Struck by the beauty of the landscape, he was reminded of Arcadia in Ancient Greece. Subsequent mappers, however, shifted the place name to the north (present-day mainland Nova Scotia), and gradually changed the spelling to Larcadia, Cadie, La Cadie, and finally, l’Acadie.

The name Acadie may also have been influenced by the Micmac language. In Micmac, the word "cadie" means " place of abundance" and can be found in names such as "Tracadie" and "Shubenacadie".
The Italian explorer, Giovanni Verrazano, is credited with the origin of the place name "Acadie". It was during a voyage of discovery, commissioned by the King of France in 1524, that Verrazano gave the name "Arcadia" to the region on the Atlantic coast which corresponds to present-day Virginia. Struck by the beauty of the landscape, he was reminded of Arcadia in Ancient Greece. Subsequent mappers, however, shifted the place name to the north (present-day mainland Nova Scotia), and gradually changed the spelling to Larcadia, Cadie, La Cadie, and finally, l’Acadie.

The name Acadie may also have been influenced by the Micmac language. In Micmac, the word "cadie" means " place of abundance" and can be found in names such as "Tracadie" and "Shubenacadie".

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

In the Micmac language, "cadie" means:

1. Place of abundance
2. Ancient Greece
3. Beautiful landscape
In the Micmac language, "cadie" means:

1. Place of abundance
2. Ancient Greece
3. Beautiful landscape

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

In 1912, a ship thought to be unsinkable collided with an iceberg in the North Atlantic and went down with over 1,500 people on board. Nova Scotia’s Maritime Museum of the Atlantic has some of the rare artefacts recovered from this wreck, including a deck chair.

What was the name of the ship that carried this chair?
In 1912, a ship thought to be unsinkable collided with an iceberg in the North Atlantic and went down with over 1,500 people on board. Nova Scotia’s Maritime Museum of the Atlantic has some of the rare artefacts recovered from this wreck, including a deck chair.

What was the name of the ship that carried this chair?

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Chair

This deck chair from the Titanic can be found at Nova Scotia's Maritime Museum.

Maritime Museum of Atlantic Canada

© 2009, CHIN-Canadian Heritage Information Network. All Rights Reserved.


The name of the ship that carried the chair was:

1. Exxon Valdez
2. Empress of Ireland
3. Titanic
The name of the ship that carried the chair was:

1. Exxon Valdez
2. Empress of Ireland
3. Titanic

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Saint John, New Brunswick, was the first Canadian town to be incorporated as a municipality. There is something else special about Saint John: it boasts the oldest museum in Canada. It contains a remarkable natural science collection and one of the largest collections of nineteenth-century decorative arts.

In what year was the museum founded?
Saint John, New Brunswick, was the first Canadian town to be incorporated as a municipality. There is something else special about Saint John: it boasts the oldest museum in Canada. It contains a remarkable natural science collection and one of the largest collections of nineteenth-century decorative arts.

In what year was the museum founded?

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Although many people are aware that Saint John, N.B. is Canada’s oldest incorporated city, few are aware that it houses Canada’s oldest continuing museum. The New Brunswick Museum was officially incorporated as the "Provincial Museum" in 1929 and received its current name in 1930, but its history goes back much further. Its lineage can be traced back another eighty-seven years to 1842 and to the original genius of one exceptional person, Dr.Abraham Gesner.

Abraham Gesner was born in Cornwallis, N.S., in 1797. His childhood fascination with scientific experiments led him to study in London, England where he became a physician. After only a few years of practice in Nova Scotia, Gesner moved to New Brunswick, in 1837, to become a full-time geologist. In 1838, he became New Brunswick’s Provincial Geologist- the first such appointment in Canada. This position lasted until 1842, when Gesner turned to making a living by displaying his collection of rocks, minerals and "curiosities" to the public.

On April 5, 1842, Dr. Abraham Gesner opened the Museum of Natural History, the original precursor of the New Brunswick Museum, in one Read More
Although many people are aware that Saint John, N.B. is Canada’s oldest incorporated city, few are aware that it houses Canada’s oldest continuing museum. The New Brunswick Museum was officially incorporated as the "Provincial Museum" in 1929 and received its current name in 1930, but its history goes back much further. Its lineage can be traced back another eighty-seven years to 1842 and to the original genius of one exceptional person, Dr.Abraham Gesner.

Abraham Gesner was born in Cornwallis, N.S., in 1797. His childhood fascination with scientific experiments led him to study in London, England where he became a physician. After only a few years of practice in Nova Scotia, Gesner moved to New Brunswick, in 1837, to become a full-time geologist. In 1838, he became New Brunswick’s Provincial Geologist- the first such appointment in Canada. This position lasted until 1842, when Gesner turned to making a living by displaying his collection of rocks, minerals and "curiosities" to the public.

On April 5, 1842, Dr. Abraham Gesner opened the Museum of Natural History, the original precursor of the New Brunswick Museum, in one room of the Mechanics’ Institute on Carleton St., Saint John, N.B. Unfortunately, income from his newly-founded museum was not enough to solve Gesner’s financial problems. In 1843, Gesner’s collection passed on to his creditors who, in turn, donated it to the Saint John Mechanics’ Institute

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Abraham Gesner, founder of the New Brunswick Museum

New Brunswick Museum

© New Brunswick Museum


The New Brunswick Museum was founded in:

1. 1842
2. 1929
3. 1846
The New Brunswick Museum was founded in:

1. 1842
2. 1929
3. 1846

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Newfoundland Museum
The first Europeans to land in Newfoundland were:
1. Vikings

The Acadian Museum
In the Micmac language, "cadie" means:
1. Place of abundance

Maritime Museum of the Atlantic
The name of the ship that carried the chair was:
3. Titanic

New Brunswick Museum
The New Brunswick Museum was founded in:
1. 1842



Newfoundland Museum
The first Europeans to land in Newfoundland were:
1. Vikings

The Acadian Museum
In the Micmac language, "cadie" means:
1. Place of abundance

Maritime Museum of the Atlantic
The name of the ship that carried the chair was:
3. Titanic

New Brunswick Museum
The New Brunswick Museum was founded in:
1. 1842



© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives

The learner will:
  • Relate intriguing facts about Maritime Canada
  • Increase their interest in Canadian history and culture
  • Gain an appreciation for the variety of museums in Canada

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