Colour image with sky, water, and round plants

painting: Stromatolite Paleoenvironment, Artist’s depiction of Precambrian stromatolites of the Green Head Group, 1995. In this view of the Precambrian world, stromatolites are shown in an intertidal setting, similar to modern stromatolites at Shark Bay, Australia.

J. Pennenan
New Brunswick Museum
1995
New Brunswick, CANADA
watercolour
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of gray rock with black and green spots

Fairville Granite, Precambrian, Rockwood Park, Saint John, New Brunswick, Collector: R. Miller, 2011. Rocks like the lava (Dacite) of the McBrien Lake Formation (554 ±14 million years old) and the Fairville Granite (548 ± 2 million years old) are pieces of the plate tectonics puzzle.

Collector: R. Miller
New Brunswick Museum

Saint John, New Brunswick, CANADA
Specimen width 11 cm
NBM 1
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of plants, shells and sea animals

painting: The Cambrian Ocean, Artist’s depiction of Cambrian life of the Saint John Group, 1995. In this view of the Cambrian world, the giant trilobite Paradoxides regina dominates the scene. Smaller trilobites, brachiopods, ostracods and echinoderms are all part of the diverse fauna. The seafloor is marked by trails left by burrowing animals and bottom feeding mollusks.

J. Pennenan
New Brunswick Museum
1995
New Brunswick, CANADA
watercolour
NBM 2
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of gray rock with darker gray winding trail

Trace Fossil: Taphrhelminthoida dailyi Hofmann and Patel, Cambrian, Hanford Brook, New Brunswick, Collector: B. Daily, 1974. In the Early Cambrian, before the ‘Explosion’ of life, the fossil record is comprised of small shelly fossils and traces left by animals. This winding trail likely represents a feeding trail of a snail-like animal.

Collector: B. Daily
New Brunswick Museum
1974
Hanford Brook, New Brunswick, CANADA
Specimen width 35 cm
NBMG 4013
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of blue ocean and jellyfish like animals

painting: Artist’s depiction of life in the Ordovician seas of the Saint John Group, 1995. In this view of the Ordovician world, graptolite colonies float in the ocean currents.

J. Pennenan
New Brunswick Museum
1995
New Brunswick, CANADA
watercolour
NBM 3
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of lead block stamped BM & S

Refined Lead Bar: lead ingot, Ordovician, Brunswick Mining and Smelting, New Brunswick. Brunswick Mining and Smelting is one of the largest lead and zinc producers in the world.

Collector: Brunswick Mining and Smelting
New Brunswick Museum

Bathurst, New Brunswick, CANADA
lead
Specimen width 62 cm
NBME 1150
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of water and colourful fish

painting: Artist's depiction of a Silurian lagoon, 1995

J. Pennenan
New Brunswick Museum
1995
New Brunswick, CANADA
watercolour
NBM 4
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of fossilized light brown coral

Coral: cf. Syringopora Goldfuss, Silurian, Quinn Point, New Brunswick, Collector: G.A. Young, 1985. Coral reefs were common in the warm shallow seas of the Silurian Period. Fossils of tabulate and rugose coral are found in fossil deposits around the world.

Collector: G.A. Young
New Brunswick Museum
1985
Quinn Point, New Brunswick, CANADA
Image width 8 cm
NBMG 12318
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of blue ocean and plants on seafloor

painting: The Devonian Ocean, Artist’s depiction of Devonian life in the ocean, 1995

J. Pennenan
New Brunswick Museum
1995
New Brunswick, CANADA
watercolour
NBM 11
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of brown rock with dark brown circles and sketch of scorpion

Eurypterid post abdomen: Pterygotus anglicus Agassiz, Devonian, Atholville, New Brunswick, Collector: J. McGovern and R.F. Miller, 1995. Eurypterids are often called sea scorpions since they superficially resemble modern scorpions. Pterygotid eurypterids are ‘giant’ sea scorpions reaching 2.5 to 3 metres in length. In New Brunswick fossils indicate eurypterids were at least 1.7 metres long.

Collectors: J. McGovern et R.F. Miller
New Brunswick Museum
1995
Atholville, New Brunswick, CANADA
Image width 50 cm
NBMG 10000
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of water, fish and plants

painting: The Lower Carboniferous Lake, Artist’s depiction of Lower Carboniferous life of the Albert Formation, 1995

J. Pennenan
New Brunswick Museum
1995
New Brunswick, CANADA
watercolour
NBM 6
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of fossilized fish in brown rock

Fish: Rhadinichthys alberti (Jackson), Lower Carboniferous, Albert Mines, New Brunswick, Collector: A. Gordon, Rev. Berrie and W.C. Good. Palaeoniscid fish belong to an extinct Order of the ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii). Today the ‘bony fishes’ make up most of the world’s vertebrates, including 95% of the 25,000 species of fish.

Collectors: A. Gordon, Rev. Berrie and W.C. Good
New Brunswick Museum

Albert Mines, New Brunswick, CANADA
Specimen length 7.5 cm
NBMG 3107
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of land and trees

painting: The Upper Carboniferous Forest, Artist’s depiction of Upper Carboniferous life in New Brunswick, 1995

J. Pennenan
New Brunswick Museum
1995
New Brunswick, CANADA
watercolour
NBM 7
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of round grey stone with hole in the centre

Grindstone, Upper Carboniferous, Stonehaven, New Brunswick, Collector: unknown. Grindstone produced at the Stonehaven Quarry.

Collector: Unknown
New Brunswick Museum

Stonehaven, New Brunswick, CANADA
Specimen width 27 cm
NBME 1160
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of plateau and mountain range

painting: The Triassic Rift, Artist’s depiction of Triassic life in New Brunswick, 1995

J. Pennenan
New Brunswick Museum
1995
New Brunswick, CANADA
watercolour
NBM 8
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of circular, black piece of wood

Fossil Wood: Martin Head, Triassic, Martin Head, New Brunswick, Collector: A. Othman, 2007. Examining the cell structure can identify small fragments of wood. Fossil from Martin Head are identified as conifers, Cupressinoxylon and Araucarioxylon.

Collector: A. Othman
New Brunswick Museum
2007
Martin Head, New Brunswick, CANADA
Specimen width < 5mm
NBMG 15054
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of striped, four-legged dinosaurs

painting: The Cretaceous World, Artist’s depiction of Cretaceous life in New Brunswick, 1995

J. Pennenan
New Brunswick Museum
1995
New Brunswick, CANADA
watercolour
NBM 9
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of small pebbles

Quartz gravel, Cretaceous, Vinegar Hill, New Brunswick, Collector: Atlantic Silica, 2007. Quartz sand and gravel is quarried by Atlantic Silica Inc. Some uses include quartz pebbles for aquarium gravel, decorative stone, foundry sands, golf course sands, mortar mixes, playground sands, filtration media and quartz sand for blasting sands.

Collector: Atlantic Silica Inc.
New Brunswick Museum
2007
Vinegar Hill, New Brunswick, CANADA
NBME 1187
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of ocean, ice and swimming animals

painting: Ice Age Paleoenvironment, Artist’s depiction of the Ice Age world at the Irving Nature Park, Saint John, New Brunswick, 1995. Near the end of the last ice age, about 14,000-13,000 years ago, glaciers stood at the Irving Nature Park in Saint John. Geologists describe it as a tidewater glacier where the ice front met the Bay of Fundy. The fossil record around this time includes the remains of brittlestars, clams and walrus.

J. Pennenan
New Brunswick Museum
1995
New Brunswick, CANADA
watercolour
NBM 10
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of skeletal walrus head

Atlantic walrus: Odobenus rosmarus Linnaeus, Neogene, Moncton, New Brunswick. Walrus fossils have been found all around the New Brunswick shoreline. This specimen was found during the construction of the Intercolonial Railway near Moncton, New Brunswick.

Collector: Unknown
New Brunswick Museum

Moncton, New Brunswick, CANADA
Skull length 36 cm (fiberglass cast)
NBMG 10319
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Dr. Randall Miller discusses the Stonehaven rock quarry.

Dr. Randall Miller Research Curator, Geology and Palaeontology New Brunswick Museum

I’m near Stonehaven on the north shore of New Brunswick on the Bay of Chaleurs. The rocks behind me are part of the Clifton Formation, they are Upper Carboniferous age about 300 million years old, lots of plant fossils in these rocks that tell us the age of the rocks.

One of the interesting things about this locality are the sandstones here, they were quarried in the 1800s to make grindstones and sharpening stones.

Not all grindstones survived the manufacturing process, a few fragments can still be seen on the beach occasionally.

New Brunswick Museum
New Brunswick Museum
2012
Stonehaven, New Brunswick, CANADA
Clifton, New Brunswick, CANADA
© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Learning Objectives

Curriculum Outcomes:
  • Students will be expected to create alternate representations, such as computer animations and physical models
  • Students will be expected to develop (prototype, fabricate, make) technological solutions to problems

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