Black and white photograph of the Armstrong Quarry shows cords of wood stacked on the wharf

photograph: Armstrong Lime Quarry, c. 1895, Green Head Island, Saint John, New Brunswick. This photograph of the Armstrong Quarry shows cords of wood stacked on the wharf. To make quicklime the marble was burned in a kiln to drive off carbon dioxide. Large quantities of wood were required to manufacture quicklime.

Unknown
Gift of Alice Murdoch, 1961
c. 1895
Saint John, New Brunswick, CANADA
1961.25a
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Black and white image of mine entrance

drawing: Mine at Reversing Falls (Plumbago) 1856, 1935-1839

Allison Montrose Colwell (1889-1963)
Webster Museum Foundation purchase, 1963
1935 - 1939
Saint John, New Brunswick, CANADA
ink on wove paper, mounted on board
1963.20
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour photograph of building with green roof, clock and cornice decoration

photograph: Old Post Office, Prince William Street, Saint John, New Brunswick, 2008. This building was constructed after the Great Fire of 1877. The building walls are constructed of sandstone from Westmorland County in eastern New Brunswick and a granite foundation from the Hampstead quarry. The mortar used to construct this building came from the Armstrong Lime Quarry at Green Head in north Saint John.

New Brunswick Museum
New Brunswick Museum
2008
Saint John, New Brunswick, CANADA
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of brown fossilized animal

Trilobite: Paradoxides regina Matthew, Cambrian, Saint John, New Brunswick, Collector: W.D. Matthew and G.F. Matthew, c. 1886. Paradoxides regina was perhaps the largest trilobite known in the late 19th century. Will Matthew found this specimen in Saint John when he was about fourteen years old. Will’s father George described the fossil in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada and named the species in honour of Queen Victoria.

Collector: W.D. Matthew and G.F. Matthew
New Brunswick Museum
c. 1886
Saint John, New Brunswick, CANADA
Trilobite length 38 cm
NBMG 4004
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of brown and white rock

Chalcopyrite, Cambrian, Cobbler Sexton Mine, near Woodstock, New Brunswick. The sample shows chalcopyrite along quartz veins.

Unknown
New Brunswick Museum
1900 -
Woodstock, New Brunswick, CANADA
Specimen width 13 cm
NBME 1200
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Black and white postcard of arching rock formation

postcard: Hole in the Wall, Grand Manan, New Brunswick, c. 1932. Erosion of the rocks on Grand Manan has formed many unique features. One of the best known is the ‘Hole in the Wall’ located on the east side of the island in the Cambrian volcanic rocks of the Fish Head Gabbro. Geologic study on Grand Manan goes back to 1839 when New Brunswick’s first Provincial Geologist, Abraham Gesner, visited Grand Manan Island to conduct a geological survey.

Unknown
New Brunswick Museum
c. 1932
Grand Manan, New Brunswick, CANADA
X13877
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of black labelled rock

Brunswick 6 Ore, Ordovician, Brunswick Mines, New Brunswick, Collector: Brunswick Mining and Smelting. Ore sample from the Brunswick No. 6 mine. The sample contains 2.7% lead, 6.2% zinc, 0.3% copper and 1.7 ounces of silver.

Collector: Brunswick Mining and Smelting
New Brunswick Museum

Bathurst, New Brunswick, CANADA
Specimen width 23 cm
NBME 1023
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Black and white photograph of two men in a canoe shooting rapids

photograph: Running the Dawsonville Rapids, the Worst on the Restigouche River, New Brunswick, c. 1900. People have been travelling New Brunswick’s water highways for thousands of years. Canoeing the Restigouche River is a long tradition in northern New Brunswick. A familiar place to many who take part in this activity is the ‘Rafting Grounds’ near Dawsonville.

Unknown
William Francis Ganong Collection
c. 1900
Dawsonville, Restigouche River, New Brunswick, CANADA
1987.17.669
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of waterfall, trees and mountains

painting: Grand Falls, New Brunswick, c. 1890. One of the New Brunswick’s better-known scenic attractions exposes the underlying Ordovician geology. The gorge at Grand Falls cuts through the White Head Formation as the Saint John River drops 23 metres over one of the highest waterfalls in Atlantic Canada.

John Christopher Miles (1832-1911)
Gift of Louise Gertrude Krohn, in memory of Isabel Higgs Duncan Dean, 1943
c. 1890
Grand Falls, New Brunswick, CANADA
oil on canvas
1943.98
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of red rock with black, white and gray spots

St. George red granite: ‘column end’, Late Silurian to Devonian, St. George, New Brunswick, Collector: unknown. Natural stone has been used for thousands of years to create buildings and monuments. In the late 1800s New Brunswick red and black ‘granite from St. George was one of the best-known decorative stones in North America.

Unknown
New Brunswick Museum

St. George, New Brunswick, CANADA
Column length 20 cm
NBME 1152
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of black rock

Chalcopyrite, Silurian, Digdeguash, Charlotte County, New Brunswick. In the summer of 1863, Loring Bailey visited copper mines in Charlotte County.

Unknown
New Brunswick Museum

Digdeguash, New Brunswick, CANADA
Specimen width (left) 8 cm; detail (right)
NBMM 2938
© 2012, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Dr. Randall Miller discusses the Fern Ledges and paleobotanist Marie Stopes.

Dr. Randall Miller Research Curator, Geology and Palaeontology New Brunswick Museum

This is the famous Fern Ledges fossil site in west Saint John and it’s part of the Lancaster Formation. It is Upper Carboniferous age, about 315 million years old. It became famous for some of the fossils that were found here. In 1860 Fred Hartt, who was a new member of the Steinhammer Club, came here with his friends and they collected plant fossils, and insect fossils which are extremely rare, and one of the oldest land snails in the world, and Sir William Dawson who was their mentor with the Steinhammer Club and the early Natural History Society, published some of those results. And he also took some of the results of the Steinhammer Club and put it into the second edition of Acadian Geology. So the site became rather well known. Sam Scudder in the United States who was an insect specialist, described some of the insect fossils from here, and in fact half of the fossils are now at Harvard University and half at the New Brunswick Museum, and those specimens, one of those specimens was a thing called Xenoneura antiquorum, it had a stridulating organ on it, that’s the sound making organ, and if you look at some of the early publications about this site from the 1800s, they describe the chirping insects in the Devonian woods. Even Darwin made mention of that particular specimen.

New Brunswick Museum
New Brunswick Museum
2012
Saint John, New Brunswick, CANADA
© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Dr. Randall Miller discusses the Fern Ledges and paleobotanist Marie Stopes.

Dr. Randall Miller Research Curator, Geology and Palaeontology New Brunswick Museum

Stratigraphers at the time thought the age of the rocks was Devonian based on the structure of the rocks, but the palaeobotanists thought it was Upper Carboniferous, a typical coal age flora, and they argued about it from 1860 until about 1900. Finally in 1913 there was an International Geological Congress and a field trip was coming here and the Geological Survey of Canada, whose people were working on this, they decided they needed to resolve the issue. So they brought in an outside specialist. Marie Stopes, who was a palaeobotanist, one of the few women working in that field in the early 1900s, and she wrote a classic palaeobotanical monograph about this place, re-identifying all the plant fossils and outlining the Carboniferous age of these particular rocks. Marie Stopes is an interesting character.

New Brunswick Museum
New Brunswick Museum
2012
Saint John, New Brunswick, CANADA
© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Learning Objectives

Curriculum Outcomes:
  • Integrate information from many sources to construct and communicate meaning.
  • Examine and create media products to help understand social, political and cultural values.

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