Truth comes to us from the past . . .
like gold washed down from the mountains.
     Carter G. Woods, Historian 1935

In the golden 1860s in Nova Scotia, painters like Frederick B. Nichols and printmakers like Captain Campbell Hardy used their art as a way to record the history of gold. Earlier, cartographers like J.F.W. DesBarres created maps that were considered art. E.R. Faribault’s maps of the gold fields of Nova Scotia in the 1890s were important for the information they contained. Education in that period often included extensive training in drawing and painting. It wasn’t unusual for a mining engineer like Nichols or a military school graduate like DesBarres to use their skills to make a visual record of new landscapes and events they encountered.

Photography was still a relatively new and cumbersome technique at that time, difficult to take outside of the studio. Dry plates were not developed until the 1880s and the wet plates that preceded them were complicated. The plates had to be developed immediately, using distilled water, and could be ruined by a speck of dust. B Read More
Truth comes to us from the past . . .
like gold washed down from the mountains.

     Carter G. Woods, Historian 1935

In the golden 1860s in Nova Scotia, painters like Frederick B. Nichols and printmakers like Captain Campbell Hardy used their art as a way to record the history of gold. Earlier, cartographers like J.F.W. DesBarres created maps that were considered art. E.R. Faribault’s maps of the gold fields of Nova Scotia in the 1890s were important for the information they contained. Education in that period often included extensive training in drawing and painting. It wasn’t unusual for a mining engineer like Nichols or a military school graduate like DesBarres to use their skills to make a visual record of new landscapes and events they encountered.

Photography was still a relatively new and cumbersome technique at that time, difficult to take outside of the studio. Dry plates were not developed until the 1880s and the wet plates that preceded them were complicated. The plates had to be developed immediately, using distilled water, and could be ruined by a speck of dust. Because of that, we rely on portrayals through other artistic disciplines to create our “picture” of the early days of Nova Scotia’s gold rush. As events unfolded, painters, engravers and cartographers supplied both information and images to newspapers and books.

Gold mining history was also recorded in words and music. Poems were written to describe the scenes as people rushed towards the dream of gold. Songs were sung, passed down over generations and, luckily, recorded by folklorist and musicologist Helen Creighton, who collected and published more than 4000 songs and ballads of Maritime Canada. They allow us to imagine the highs and lows in the lives of miners that were vividly described by the Honorable Joseph Howe, Provincial Secretary of Nova Scotia, (equivalent to a present day Premier). He noted “the buoyant step and flashing eyes of the new comers, just rushing out of the dense foliage, in hot haste to be rich.” Howe also described the contrast in miners who had worked long and hard without finding the proverbial pot of gold, “the subdued and doubting expression of those who had been digging and washing all day without a sight of the glittering ore.”
  

© 2013, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. All Rights Reserved.

Joseph Frederick Wallet DesBarres

J.F.W. DesBarres is famous for the beautifully detailed maps he created, which were considered art. He trained to become a military officer at the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich, England, where he was also trained in topographical drawing. At that time, officers needed to be able to map terrains and draw visual records. In the field, there was no distinction between cartographers and painters. Cartography was considered an art, representing the earth coherently on a plane surface.

In order to create maps of Nova Scotia, DesBarres sailed the coast many summers, starting in 1760. He recorded every detail of the tortuous coastline, then worked on rough drafts of the maps in the winter. They were eventually published in DesBarres’ 4-volume marine atlas, Atlantic Neptune. Robert J. Morgan, Director of the Beaton Institute at the University College of Cape Breton, said the “artistic quality that the charts and views especially shine, since their accuracy is combined with an aesthetic character that places DesBarres among the more notabl Read More
Joseph Frederick Wallet DesBarres

J.F.W. DesBarres is famous for the beautifully detailed maps he created, which were considered art. He trained to become a military officer at the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich, England, where he was also trained in topographical drawing. At that time, officers needed to be able to map terrains and draw visual records. In the field, there was no distinction between cartographers and painters. Cartography was considered an art, representing the earth coherently on a plane surface.

In order to create maps of Nova Scotia, DesBarres sailed the coast many summers, starting in 1760. He recorded every detail of the tortuous coastline, then worked on rough drafts of the maps in the winter. They were eventually published in DesBarres’ 4-volume marine atlas, Atlantic Neptune. Robert J. Morgan, Director of the Beaton Institute at the University College of Cape Breton, said the “artistic quality that the charts and views especially shine, since their accuracy is combined with an aesthetic character that places DesBarres among the more notable of the century’s minor artists.”

DesBarres had a long and varied life, serving as a governor on Cape Breton and Prince Edward Island, accumulating large amounts of land, and reportedly dancing on a table top in Halifax on his 100th birthday.
  

© 2013, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. All Rights Reserved.

Full map of Halifax Harbour with two coloured topographical insets.

Hand-coloured etching of a map of Halifax Harbour with two topographical insets. Stationed largely in Halifax (the principal naval base in North America), British army officer and military engineer Colonel Joseph Frederick Wallet Des Barres was responsible for conducting one of the most significant surveys of North America for the British government - the “Survey of Nova Scotia”.

Joseph Frederick Wallet DesBarres
c. 1781
Halifax, CANADA
Hand coloured etching
75.0 x 137.5 cm
2006.200
© 2013, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. All Rights Reserved.


E. R. Faribault

E.R. Faribault’s career, from 1882-1932, was the longest in the history of the Geological Survey of Canada, and he was noted for his excellence in field geology. He worked on systematically mapping Nova Scotia during that time. In 1885, Faribault started mapping Nova Scotia’s gold fields. He focused on the Meguma Group along the southeast coast of Nova Scotia and made important discoveries that furthered people’s understanding of the location of gold in the province. Faribault noted that “gold occurred like saddles along the crests of small anticlines” and discovered many, mostly small, orebodies.
  
E. R. Faribault

E.R. Faribault’s career, from 1882-1932, was the longest in the history of the Geological Survey of Canada, and he was noted for his excellence in field geology. He worked on systematically mapping Nova Scotia during that time. In 1885, Faribault started mapping Nova Scotia’s gold fields. He focused on the Meguma Group along the southeast coast of Nova Scotia and made important discoveries that furthered people’s understanding of the location of gold in the province. Faribault noted that “gold occurred like saddles along the crests of small anticlines” and discovered many, mostly small, orebodies.
  

© 2013, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. All Rights Reserved.

Detail image of Faribault’s plan of the Oldham Gold District

Faribault published 47 map sheets, each covering an area 12 x 16 miles (roughly 19 x 26 km) under his own name and another 13 that he co-authored with Hugh Fletcher, another pioneer geologist. In addition to these larger maps, Faribault completed 34 detailed maps of areas where workable gold veins were encountered, published on large scales – 500 ft to an inch.

E. R. Faribault, Geological Survey of Canada
1898
© 2013, Geological Survey of Canada. All Rights Reserved.


Watercolour painting was considered an essential part of a good education in the 1800s, used not only by ordinary citizens but also by surveyors, mapmakers, military officers, engineers, landscape painters and tourism promoters. The paint cakes, called pans, were invented in the late 1700s by brothers William and Thomas Reeves. These cakes were significant because they made watercolours easily portable. Nichols would also have carried brushes, paper, a flask to hold water, and a board to paint on – all contained in a portable metal paint box.

Frederick B. Nichols had training both as an engraver and a mining engineer when he moved to Nova Scotia in 1865. “Oldham” is one example from a series of watercolours that Nichols painted of key gold mining districts. The watercolours may have been sketches for future prints, with his background as an engraver. Nichols’ choices, both the pastel colours in his palette and the specific objects he portrays in his watercolours, are important to note. Although his subject is gold mining, he managed to create an idyllic scene with industry merely as background.
   
Watercolour painting was considered an essential part of a good education in the 1800s, used not only by ordinary citizens but also by surveyors, mapmakers, military officers, engineers, landscape painters and tourism promoters. The paint cakes, called pans, were invented in the late 1700s by brothers William and Thomas Reeves. These cakes were significant because they made watercolours easily portable. Nichols would also have carried brushes, paper, a flask to hold water, and a board to paint on – all contained in a portable metal paint box.

Frederick B. Nichols had training both as an engraver and a mining engineer when he moved to Nova Scotia in 1865. “Oldham” is one example from a series of watercolours that Nichols painted of key gold mining districts. The watercolours may have been sketches for future prints, with his background as an engraver. Nichols’ choices, both the pastel colours in his palette and the specific objects he portrays in his watercolours, are important to note. Although his subject is gold mining, he managed to create an idyllic scene with industry merely as background.
   

© 2013, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. All Rights Reserved.

Watercolour landscape showing two miners working a hoist above a mine shaft.

Nichols has chosen to paint idyllic industrial landscapes in a muted, serene palette, minimizing the visual impact of the industry on the land. Little in the images makes the viewer aware of anything other than charming scenes of pastoral beauty or of activity at a safe distance.

Frederick B. Nichols
c. 1870
Oldham, Nova Scotia, CANADA
Watercolour on wove paper
13.6 x 22.5 cm
2011.264
© 2013, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. All Rights Reserved.


This poem was found in 1970 at the dump in Sherbrooke, which is across the St. Mary’s River from Goldenville. Aside from his address, nothing is known about the poem’s author, John MacDonald. He describes the initial exuberant optimism after gold was discovered. A farmer, Nelson Nickerson, discovered gold while haying in the summer of 1861 and kept it secret until October, when the news leaked out. By October 18th, over two hundred hopeful people had arrived. Within a year there was a thriving village and stamp mills had been constructed, as depicted in Nichols’ watercolour.

GOLDENVILLE
On the banks of Saint Mary’s river,
Stands a mountain grand and cold,
Placed thair by a bounties giver,
Filled with treasures manifold,
Treasures for which the world is waiting,
While the miners ply thair Skill,
Seaking to excell thair raiting,
In the camp of Goldenville.
While I thanked the bounties giver,
And watched the Silvery ripped tide,
Sliding down St. Mary’s river,
_______d hear the ceaseless pounding,
Of rock-breaker and Stamp-mill.
O&rsq Read More
This poem was found in 1970 at the dump in Sherbrooke, which is across the St. Mary’s River from Goldenville. Aside from his address, nothing is known about the poem’s author, John MacDonald. He describes the initial exuberant optimism after gold was discovered. A farmer, Nelson Nickerson, discovered gold while haying in the summer of 1861 and kept it secret until October, when the news leaked out. By October 18th, over two hundred hopeful people had arrived. Within a year there was a thriving village and stamp mills had been constructed, as depicted in Nichols’ watercolour.

GOLDENVILLE
On the banks of Saint Mary’s river,
Stands a mountain grand and cold,
Placed thair by a bounties giver,
Filled with treasures manifold,
Treasures for which the world is waiting,
While the miners ply thair Skill,
Seaking to excell thair raiting,
In the camp of Goldenville.
While I thanked the bounties giver,
And watched the Silvery ripped tide,
Sliding down St. Mary’s river,
_______d hear the ceaseless pounding,
Of rock-breaker and Stamp-mill.
O’re the hills and valleys sounding,
From the camp of Goldville.
T’was evening and the sun was setting,
O’re lake and hill and mountain high,
And its golden rays were tiping,
The waves on the fiver flowing by,
As the gentle breezes waffed,
To my ease from o’re the hill,
The merry Shouts and Joyous laughter,
Of the miners in Goldenville.
Laugh, yes work is but a pleasure,
To the miners after gold,
For when they see the golden-treasures,
Thair hearts pulsates with joy untold,
For thus thair labour is rewarded,
And farewell they know its worth,
For gold is king and will bring forward,
Brighter days of joy and mirth.
     John A. MacDonald
     115 Kinnaird St.
  

© 2013, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. All Rights Reserved.

Watercolour painting by Frederick Nichols from the 1860s showing one of the stamp mill buildings at Goldenville

The locations where stamp mills were built required careful consideration, including access to a water supply, a solid bedrock foundation for the mortar block of the mill, sufficient space for a tailing dump was needed, and at a level great enough so that the tailings could flow out into the dump by means of gravity rather than by hoisting them out.

Frederick B. Nichols
1871
Goldenville, Nova Scotia, CANADA
Watercolour on wove paper
13.8 x 22.9 cm
2011.269
© 2013, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. All Rights Reserved.


A gilded frame encases a watercolour painting of a stamp mill.

The watercolour painting "Excelsior (late Chicago) Mill, Goldenville", 1871 by Frederick Nichols framed with a gilt frame. Gilded frames have been popular for a very long time and while the technique has not changed significantly, the gilding process is an art in itself requiring both time and patience needed to gild even a simple frame.

Frederick B. Nichols

2011.269
© 2013, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. All Rights Reserved.


This frame, with its golden decoration, is an example of the ancient method known as gilding – or gold leafing – a process mentioned in both the Odyssey and the Old Testament. Because gold is exceptionally malleable, it can be hammered into sheets so thin they have to be picked up and applied with a special brush. These sheets are called gold leaf, which can be brushed onto wood that has been coated with a layer of adhesive. The adhesive can be gesso, (a substance made of finely ground gypsum or chalk mixed with glue) or size (a name used for a variety of glutinous materials), or glue mix.

Check out this video demonstrating how to gild a frame.
  
This frame, with its golden decoration, is an example of the ancient method known as gilding – or gold leafing – a process mentioned in both the Odyssey and the Old Testament. Because gold is exceptionally malleable, it can be hammered into sheets so thin they have to be picked up and applied with a special brush. These sheets are called gold leaf, which can be brushed onto wood that has been coated with a layer of adhesive. The adhesive can be gesso, (a substance made of finely ground gypsum or chalk mixed with glue) or size (a name used for a variety of glutinous materials), or glue mix.

Check out this video demonstrating how to gild a frame.
  

© 2013, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. All Rights Reserved.

Coloured engraving showing gold miners walking up between a “street” of wooden shaft houses and tents.

A hand-coloured wood engraving published in the "Illustrated London News", September 14, 1861. Based on a drawing by Captain Campbell Hardy.

Captain Campbell Hardy, Unknown
1861-09-14
Tangier, Nova Scotia, CANADA
Hand-colour wood engraving on paper
16.3 x 23.3 cm
1995.450
© 2013, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. All Rights Reserved.


Newspaper

New Gold-diggings in Nova Scotia: Gold-Street, Tangier
     by Captain Campbell Hardy, RA

"The diggings at Tangier are prettily situated in the forest, about half a mile from the eastern shore of the upper portion of Tangier harbour. A good road has been cut through the dense fir forest to the claims, and though our correspondent once went astray, as, unguided, he left it for some beaten cattle-path, the sound of the blasting rocks and shouting of the diggers soon recalled him to the right direction. Gold-street, as it is called — an assemblage of wooden houses, or rather shanties, raised up at an expense of some £2 or £3 in this country of cheap timber — is the subject of our Engraving. A town suddenly appearing in the midst of the woods, without clearings, fields, or inclosures, full of shops, or rather stores as they are called in America, where anything can be procured, from a crinoline to a bottle of Bass’s pale ale, may be certainly reckoned amongst the novelt Read More
Newspaper

New Gold-diggings in Nova Scotia: Gold-Street, Tangier

     by Captain Campbell Hardy, RA

"The diggings at Tangier are prettily situated in the forest, about half a mile from the eastern shore of the upper portion of Tangier harbour. A good road has been cut through the dense fir forest to the claims, and though our correspondent once went astray, as, unguided, he left it for some beaten cattle-path, the sound of the blasting rocks and shouting of the diggers soon recalled him to the right direction. Gold-street, as it is called — an assemblage of wooden houses, or rather shanties, raised up at an expense of some £2 or £3 in this country of cheap timber — is the subject of our Engraving. A town suddenly appearing in the midst of the woods, without clearings, fields, or inclosures, full of shops, or rather stores as they are called in America, where anything can be procured, from a crinoline to a bottle of Bass’s pale ale, may be certainly reckoned amongst the novelties even of the New World; whilst the universal civility and good manners of its inhabitants would certainly hardly agree with the notions of the character of the gold-digger as forwarded to us from the Eldorados of Australia and California."

This was published in The Illustrated London News, 14 September 1861 p. 275.

Captain Campbell Hardy is an example of the multiple roles individuals played at this time. Trained as a military officer, he was also trained to record landscapes through drawings. As well, he was one of the early members of the “Nova Scotia Institute of National Science”.

The newspaper image was printed from an engraving based on sketches drawn by Captain Hardy. An engraving is made by incising marks on the surface of a metal plate, or block of wood, with a sharp pointed instrument--then inking the plate and printing it on paper. Typically in Hardy’s time, he would submit drawings or sketches and the newspaper would give those originals to an engraver. (Sometimes several engravers worked together on multiple blocks of wood to create one image very quickly, and sometimes those prints were hand coloured after printing with watercolours.)

Song
Helen Creighton was an essential link in preserving the musical history of Nova Scotia. Starting in the 1930s, she searched out people who had songs and tales handed down to them, recording more than 4000 of these. Helen traveled far and wide, often walking or sailing to remote places to collect the music and stories. She carted the large and heavy equipment of the day. The melodeon, a nineteenth century reed organ, was a metre long. The tape recorders were large reel-to-reel machines.

The “Song of the Tangier Gold Mines” was composed by Catherine Hart when the boom in the Tangier area was just beginning and hopes were high. The song reflects the immense optimism that marked the beginning of the gold rush.
  

© 2013, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. All Rights Reserved.

Forshaw Day immigrated to Halifax in 1862, where he had a studio on Bedford Row until 1879. He studied in London at the Royal Dublin Society’s School of Art and the Central Training School, Gore House. His training, unlike that of Nichols and DesBarres, was specific to the arts. His occupation was artist; he was known as Nova Scotia’s first professional landscape painter. His paintings were often displayed in the windows of Julius Cornelius’ jewellery shop on Granville Street, giving an idea of the connections in the artistic community in Halifax.
  
Forshaw Day immigrated to Halifax in 1862, where he had a studio on Bedford Row until 1879. He studied in London at the Royal Dublin Society’s School of Art and the Central Training School, Gore House. His training, unlike that of Nichols and DesBarres, was specific to the arts. His occupation was artist; he was known as Nova Scotia’s first professional landscape painter. His paintings were often displayed in the windows of Julius Cornelius’ jewellery shop on Granville Street, giving an idea of the connections in the artistic community in Halifax.
  

© 2013, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. All Rights Reserved.

Historical landscape painting of Waverley.

Gold was discovered at Waverley in 1861, and the Waverley Gold Mining Company included Day's painting "The Waverley Gold Fields" in the provincial submission for the international Dublin exhibition in 1865.

Forshaw Day
c. 1865
Waverley, Nova Scotia, CANADA
© 2013, National Gallery of Canada. All Rights Reserved.


In the 1980s, the Nova Scotian artist Joseph Purcell was commissioned to produce a series of paintings by Seabright Resources, a gold mining company that carried out explorations in Nova Scotia. Seabright’s goal was to preserve, through these paintings, Nova Scotia’s gold mining history. Purcell researched historical images and information, and visited locations of former gold activity, in order to create these contemporary paintings based on history.
  
In the 1980s, the Nova Scotian artist Joseph Purcell was commissioned to produce a series of paintings by Seabright Resources, a gold mining company that carried out explorations in Nova Scotia. Seabright’s goal was to preserve, through these paintings, Nova Scotia’s gold mining history. Purcell researched historical images and information, and visited locations of former gold activity, in order to create these contemporary paintings based on history.
  

© 2013, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. All Rights Reserved.

Painting showing mine structures and tailings pond in the Oldham Gold District.

This is one of the oldest gold districts in the province, with the original discovery in the spring of 1861. The scene depicts a main mill set up at this active gold camp around the turn of the century. Some stamp mills at this productive site were water-powered.

Joseph Purcell
c. 1986
Oldham, Nova Scotia, CANADA
© 2013, Nova Scotia Museum of Industry. All Rights Reserved.


Painting of a man standing in front of a log cabin in the winter.

This painting shows the cabin built by Johnnie Crouse in the late 1920s. Crouse would have crushed ore with a steel mortar and pestle. The painting shows the isolation many of these individual miners experienced. A story that goes with this painting says Crouse is calling to his horse to come inside the cabin — to help warm it up after a long day of mining!

Joseph Purcell
c. 1986
Beaver Dam, Nova Scotia, CANADA
© 2013, Nova Scotia Museum of Industry. All Rights Reserved.


At the beginning of Nova Scotia’s Gold Rush in the 1860s, photographs taken in the field, al fresco, were still rare. The photographic equipment was cumbersome, difficult to carry, and expensive. Developing pictures was undertaken mainly in studios. Dry plates were not developed until the 1880s and the wet plates that preceded them were complicated. The plates had to be developed immediately, using distilled water, and could be ruined by a speck of dust. They had to be exposed and developed while the plates were still wet. To do this in the field meant hauling not just cameras but also barrels of distilled water, a collapsible dark tent—and risking inhaling fumes from the chemicals.

By the late 1800s, new means of processing photos had been discovered that allowed photographers to move more easily outside their studios. Factory-prepared plates and paper were available. The recording of history through images changed — a change that continues to the present day. Now it is possible to take pictures anywhere, anytime, with an ever-increasing range of digital technologies.
  
At the beginning of Nova Scotia’s Gold Rush in the 1860s, photographs taken in the field, al fresco, were still rare. The photographic equipment was cumbersome, difficult to carry, and expensive. Developing pictures was undertaken mainly in studios. Dry plates were not developed until the 1880s and the wet plates that preceded them were complicated. The plates had to be developed immediately, using distilled water, and could be ruined by a speck of dust. They had to be exposed and developed while the plates were still wet. To do this in the field meant hauling not just cameras but also barrels of distilled water, a collapsible dark tent—and risking inhaling fumes from the chemicals.

By the late 1800s, new means of processing photos had been discovered that allowed photographers to move more easily outside their studios. Factory-prepared plates and paper were available. The recording of history through images changed — a change that continues to the present day. Now it is possible to take pictures anywhere, anytime, with an ever-increasing range of digital technologies.
  

© 2013, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. All Rights Reserved.

Photograph of a stamp mill and tailings.

Photography became a more useful documentation tool after the invention of photographic film in 1889. Until then, drawings and paintings were the primary way to record an image.

E. R. Faribault, Geological Survey of Canada
1896
Renfrew, Nova Scotia, CANADA
© 2013, Geological Survey of Canada. All Rights Reserved.


Photograph of the surface plant of Oldham Gold Mining Co.

The surface plant of the Oldham Gold Mining Co.

N.S. Archives and Records Management Library TN B41 1895 part 2.
1895
Oldham, Nova Scotia, CANADA
© 2013, Nova Scotia Archives. All Rights Reserved.


1. Examine the four images of Oldham: the watercolour by Nichols, Purcell’s oil painting, the 1895 photograph and Faribault’s map. They are each views of one location. You can have a class discussion, work in small groups, or individually and answer these questions through an oral or written report.
    a. What is the same?
    b. What is different?
    c. What message do you think each is trying to convey?
    d. How do they do that?
    e. Do you think that one image is truer than another?
    f. Do you think that a painting can be as accurate as a photograph?
    g. Can photographs be purposely misleading?
    h. Does one medium automaticall Read More
1. Examine the four images of Oldham: the watercolour by Nichols, Purcell’s oil painting, the 1895 photograph and Faribault’s map. They are each views of one location. You can have a class discussion, work in small groups, or individually and answer these questions through an oral or written report.
    a. What is the same?
    b. What is different?
    c. What message do you think each is trying to convey?
    d. How do they do that?
    e. Do you think that one image is truer than another?
    f. Do you think that a painting can be as accurate as a photograph?
    g. Can photographs be purposely misleading?
    h. Does one medium automatically portray more truth than another?

2. Find an industrial site in your local area and document it in two different ways.
    a. First, create an image (using any means you choose) in the style of Nichols, finding a way to make the site look appealing--romantic.
    b. Next, create an image (using any means you choose) in the style of the 1895 photograph that shows the actual workings of the site.
    c. Finally, discuss the following questions as you view the images you produce. What is the difference in the message the two images portray? What relation/importance do you think this might have to images you see in the news.

3. You are a reporter sent out to a modern day gold mining exploration. Answer the following questions, explaining your choices.
    a. What equipment would you take with you?
    b. What media or methods would you use to share the information in order to reach the widest possible range of people, from politicians to people who live in the area.
  

© 2013, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives

1. Explore, challenge, develop and express ideas using the skills, languages, techniques, and processes of the arts.
(Visual Arts, Grades 7-12)

2. Demonstrate critical awareness of and value for the role of the arts in creating and reflecting culture.
(Visual Arts, Grades 7-12)

3. Interpret, select and combine information using a variety of strategies, resources and technologies.
(English Language Arts, Grades 7-12)

Teachers' Centre Home Page | Find Learning Resources & Lesson Plans