Wooden Common Goldeneye decoy

Decoys are used to lure ducks by taking advantage of their flocking instinct. They are drawn to locations that seem to be frequented by others of their species. The handmade wooden decoy in this photograph is meant to attract Common Goldeneye. This diving duck tends to keep to the deeper water in the middle of the lake.

Unknown

Wooden sculpture
1998.157
© 2013, Musée québécois de culture populaire. All Rights Reserved.


Wooden Blue-Winged Teal decoy

Blue-Winged Teal were once abundant in these marshes, but changes in agricultural practices have reduced this species' population in the Lake Saint-Pierre region. The hay fields have been replaced by other crops, making the environment less suitable as a nesting ground.

Unknown

Wooden sculpture
2005.32.41
© 2013, Musée québécois de culture populaire.


Wooden sculpture representing a Canada Goose

This wooden sculpture is modelled on a Canada Goose gliding along the water's surface. It was probably used to attract birds of this species to a specific location.

Unknown

Wooden sculpture
1998.63
© 2013, Musée québécois de culture populaire. All Rights Reserved.


Man holding a Canada Goose decoy.

Modern hunters use plastic decoys , rather than wooden ones, to attract ducks and geese. Here we can see a man holding a plastic Canada Goose decoy.

Philippe Manning
2012-09-21
© 2013, Biophare. All Rights Reserved.


Leather snow boots from the 1850s

These boots from the 1850s were probably meant to be strapped into snowshoes.

Unknown
c. 1850
Fiber, leather
H = 40 cm, L = 24,50 cm, W = 10 cm
1983.10622.01-02
© 2013, Musée québécois de culture populaire. All Rights Reserved.


Pair of bearpaw snowshoes with rawhide lacing

These snowshoes, with their large surface area, were used to walk on deep snow without sinking. Although snowshoes are still used today, their appearance has changed dramatically.

Unknown

Wood, rope, fiber, cotton, leather, rawhide lacing
L = 48 cm, W = 43 cm
2004.33.1920.01-02
© 2013, Musée québécois de culture populaire. All Rights Reserved.


Bull's horn used to carry gunpowder.

Hunters once used powderhorns, made by capping both ends of a bull's horn, to keep their gunpowder dry.

Unknown

Wood, metal, bone, leather
H = 7.80 cm, L = 33.10 cm, W = 11.80 cm
2004.33.2042
© 2013, Musée québécois de culture populaire. All Rights Reserved.


Traditional "Assomption" arrowhead sash

In early colonial times, French fur traders known as coureurs des bois would wear an arrowhead sash on their hunting expeditions. This emblematic finger-woven sash was worn over a trader's coat to keep it closed, but was also strong enough to pull heavy loads.

Unknown

Wool
L = 242.00 cm, W = 24.40 cm
1983.10410
© 2013, Musée québécois de culture populaire. All Rights Reserved.


Hunting knife with horn handle

Hunters always keep a hunting knife handy; it is an essential tool.

Unknown

Metal, bone, leather
H = 3.40 cm, L = 27.50 cm, W = 5.40 cm
2004.33.350.01-02
© 2013, Musée québécois de culture populaire. All Rights Reserved.


From the 16th century to the early the 19th century, beaver fur was in very high demand for making felt hats. Trapping was so intense that beaver populations eventually collapsed. The process of making a felt hat took around 7 hours of work and involved some 30 different steps. First the guard hairs were removed, leaving only the dense undercoat, made up of fine, silky hairs which could be felted.
From the 16th century to the early the 19th century, beaver fur was in very high demand for making felt hats. Trapping was so intense that beaver populations eventually collapsed. The process of making a felt hat took around 7 hours of work and involved some 30 different steps. First the guard hairs were removed, leaving only the dense undercoat, made up of fine, silky hairs which could be felted.

© 2013, Biophare. All Rights Reserved.

Beaver top-hat

Beaver felt hats protected the wearer from sun and rain. They also served as status symbols, advertising the wealth of the people who wore them.

Unknown

Beaver fur
H = 33.90 cm, L = 29.70, W = 21.50
1991.480
© 2013, Musée québécois de culture populaire. All Rights Reserved.


Leather fishing waders

These old-fashioned fishing waders are made entirely of leather. Modern waders are made of synthetic materials and rubber, and are therefore lighter and more waterproof.

Unknown

Leather, metal
H = 119.00 cm, W = 44.00 cm
1983.10736
© 2013, Musée québécois de culture populaire. All Rights Reserved.


Early 20th century hoop net

This hoop net dates from the early 20th century. Modern fishermen still fish using this type of net.

Unknown
1900 - 1925
Wood, rope, metal
Height = 26.00 cm, diameter = 82.00 cm
1983.4735
© 2013, Musée québécois de culture populaire. All Rights Reserved.


Lighthouses used oil-fuelled lamps throughout the first half of the 20th century. The lighthouse keeper would light a wick dipped in a reservoir of oil, creating an intense flame and a strong light. When a ship was expected, the lighthouse keepers would be notified so they could light the lamps. When the St. Lawrence Seaway was opened year-round, the lighthouses were switched to battery-powered electric lamps. Today, the range lights are powered by solar panels.
Lighthouses used oil-fuelled lamps throughout the first half of the 20th century. The lighthouse keeper would light a wick dipped in a reservoir of oil, creating an intense flame and a strong light. When a ship was expected, the lighthouse keepers would be notified so they could light the lamps. When the St. Lawrence Seaway was opened year-round, the lighthouses were switched to battery-powered electric lamps. Today, the range lights are powered by solar panels.

© 2013, Biophare. All Rights Reserved.

Lighthouse on Île du Moine in winter

A solar panel on top of the lighthouse on Île du Moine powers the lamp.

Philippe Manning
2013-02-23
© 2013, Biophare. All Rights Reserved.


A commercial vessel sails along the St. Lawrence Seaway.

The average depth of Lake Saint-Pierre is just three metres. In 1844, a channel was dredged in the centre of the lake to permit heavy commercial vessels to pass safely, Originally, the channel was 2.1 metres deep and 30 to 45 metres wide. Today, the channel is 11.3 metres deep and 245 metres wide, to accommodate much larger modern vessels.

Mario Cloutier
2012-08-04
© 2013, Biophare. All Rights Reserved.


Workers exit the Sorel Industries Limited plant, around 1942.

Sorel Industries Limited employed up to 3,000 people during World War II, when this plant manufactured cannons and shells. It was a period of great prosperity and full employment in Sorel.

Unknown
c. 1942
Black and white photograph
© 2013, Société historique Pierre-de-Saurel. All Rights Reserved.


The history of shipbuilding in the Sorel region began in the 18th century. This industry peaked during World War II (1939-1945), when thousands of workers were employed at Marine Industries Limited, a company founded in 1937 by the Simard brothers, three sons of a navigator from Baie-Saint-Paul.

The eldest brother, Joseph, moved to Sorel in 1909. Eight years later, he purchased a workshop, Les Chantiers Manseau Limited, and went into business repairing, maintaining and building dredges. His brother Édouard joined him in Sorel in 1927. They were able to obtain a lucrative contract to dredge a shipping channel between Montreal and Quebec. The third brother, Ludger, joined the family business in 1931. Together, they purchased the shipyard from the government in 1937; this was the official beginning of Marine Industries Limited.

This company, based on the west bank of the Richelieu not far from the St. Lawrence, played a central role in the regional economy for many decades. The shipyard was one of Canada’s most important shipbuilding centres.

During World War II, the shipyard was open 24 hours a day. It operated at a frenetic pace, taking as lit Read More
The history of shipbuilding in the Sorel region began in the 18th century. This industry peaked during World War II (1939-1945), when thousands of workers were employed at Marine Industries Limited, a company founded in 1937 by the Simard brothers, three sons of a navigator from Baie-Saint-Paul.

The eldest brother, Joseph, moved to Sorel in 1909. Eight years later, he purchased a workshop, Les Chantiers Manseau Limited, and went into business repairing, maintaining and building dredges. His brother Édouard joined him in Sorel in 1927. They were able to obtain a lucrative contract to dredge a shipping channel between Montreal and Quebec. The third brother, Ludger, joined the family business in 1931. Together, they purchased the shipyard from the government in 1937; this was the official beginning of Marine Industries Limited.

This company, based on the west bank of the Richelieu not far from the St. Lawrence, played a central role in the regional economy for many decades. The shipyard was one of Canada’s most important shipbuilding centres.

During World War II, the shipyard was open 24 hours a day. It operated at a frenetic pace, taking as little as a week to build an entire Liberty Ship.

Marine Industries delivered 30 Liberty ships to the Royal Canadian Navy, as well as many minesweepers, light frigates, barges to transport troops and equipment, and fleet oilers.

After the war, Marine Industries Limited diversified its production, building ferries, icebreakers, and oil tankers.

The "Sir William Alexander" was the last ship built entirely at the Marine Industrie Limitée (in French since that time) shipyard, in 1987. It was intended for the Canadian Coast Guard.

The Ludger-Simard regional industrial park mainly houses companies in the metallurgy and environmental technology industries. It is located on the former site of Marine Industrie Limitée, which shut down completely in 1991.

© 2013, Biophare. All Rights Reserved.

Black and white photograph of the Marine Industries Limited shipyard, July 17, 1942

Marine Industries Limited shipyard, July 17, 1942

Unknown
1942-07-17
Black and white photograph
© 2013, Société historique Pierre-de-Saurel. All Rights Reserved.


Smokestacks of Rio Tinto Fer et Titane silhouetted against the horizon, seen from the St. Lawrence

The smokestacks of Rio Tinto Fer et Titane can be seen from far away. This company, formerly known as Quebec Iron & Titanium, is one of the main suppliers of raw materials for the titanium dioxide industry, and is a worldwide leader in the production of pig iron, steel, and metal powders.

Mario Cloutier
2012-08-04
© 2013, Biophare. All Rights Reserved.


The community pastures date back to the era of New France, in the 17th century. Most were used for grazing livestock, and belonged to the seigneurs. Farmers would graze their herds on the community pastures throughout the summer. Tenants would pay annual dues to the seigneur (in the form of cash or agricultural products) to pasture their livestock.

This tradition has persisted in modern times; there are still three community pastures in the Lake Saint-Pierre archipelago, on Île du Moine, Île de la Commune and Île Dupas.
The community pastures date back to the era of New France, in the 17th century. Most were used for grazing livestock, and belonged to the seigneurs. Farmers would graze their herds on the community pastures throughout the summer. Tenants would pay annual dues to the seigneur (in the form of cash or agricultural products) to pasture their livestock.

This tradition has persisted in modern times; there are still three community pastures in the Lake Saint-Pierre archipelago, on Île du Moine, Île de la Commune and Île Dupas.

© 2013, Biophare. All Rights Reserved.

Barge used to carry livestock to the community pasture on Île du Moine.

Today, there are no more sheep on the pastures of Île du Moine. The island is used exclusively to pasture heifers (young cows that have not yet calved). Farmers bring their livestock to the island in the spring on a barge, and collect them again in the fall.

Philippe Manning
2008-10-24
© 2013, Biophare. All Rights Reserved.


Tractor and large round hay bales on Île du Moine

The community pasture on Île du Moine is also used to grow hay. Enriched by the spring floods, the soil produces hay with high nutritional content. In the early 20th century, many of the islands would flood at least once every two years, naturally fertilizing the soil. All the locals has to do was harvest the hay. The fields would only need to be renovated every 15-20 years.

Mario Cloutier
2012-08-04
© 2013, Biophare. All Rights Reserved.


19th century pitchfork, used to collect hay.

This 19th century pitchfork was used to collect cut hay.

Unknown
XIXth Century
Wood, metal, iron
L = 201.00 cm, W = 35.80 cm
1983.11676
© 2013, Musée québécois de culture populaire. All Rights Reserved.


20th century hay knife, used to cut bales of hay.

This mid-20th century hay knife was used to cut large bales of hay stored in a hayloft.

Unknown
1925 - 1950
Wood, metal, iron
L = 201.00 cm, W = 35.80 cm
1983.29
© 2013, Musée québécois de culture populaire. All Rights Reserved.


Fields of soybeans on Île du Milieu, in the summer

Soy, a high-protein legume, is becoming an increasingly popular crop in the region. Fields of soybeans alternate with cornfields, adding variety to the landscape. In modern times, these crops are grown on a large scale.

Philippe Manning
2008-08-14
© 2013, Biophare. All Rights Reserved.


Late 19th century wheel plow, used to till the soil.

This late 19th century wheel plow was used to till the soil. An ox or horse would pull the plow while the farmer held the handles to guide the plowshare. This method of plowing was very hard work. Modern farmers use a tractor to till the soil.

Unknown
1875 - 1899
Wood, metal, iron
H = 80.00 cm, L = 233.00 cm, W = 76.00 cm
1983.8947
© 2013, Musée québécois de culture populaire. All Rights Reserved.


19th century sickle, used to harvest grain.

This mid-19th century sickle was used to harvest grain: wheat, barley, oats and rye. In modern times, grain is harvested mechanically with a combine-harvester.

Unknown
c. 1850
Wood, pine, metal, iron
L=44.40 cm, W=30.70 cm, Diameter=3.30 cm
1983.3153
© 2013, Musée québécois de culture populaire. All Rights Reserved.


Cradle scythe, once used to harvest grain.

The sharp metal part of this cradle scythe was used to cut grain stalks, while the part resembling a pitchfork was used to gather the stalks into a neat pile.

Unknown

Wood, metal
H = 155.00 cm, L = 115.00 cm, W = 63.50 cm
2004.33.2253
© 2013, Musée québécois de culture populaire. All Rights Reserved.


Early 20th century beekeeper hat, made of cotton, linen and straw.

In the early 20th century, beekeepers used handmade cotton, linen and straw hats like this one to protect themselves from stings.

Unknown
1900 - 1925
Cotton, linen, straw
H = 12.00 cm, L = 26.00 cm, W = 25.00 cm
1983.10828
© 2013, Musée québécois de culture populaire. All Rights Reserved.


Beekeeper opening a hive.

Modern beekeepers use industrially manufactured beekeeper hats, consisting of a stiff hood with a veil, to protect them from bee stings.

Philippe Manning
2012-11-23
© 2013, Biophare. All Rights Reserved.


Bee smoker

Beekeepers use a bee smoker to produce cool smoke and blow it into the hive. The stressed bees begin eating honey, giving the beekeeper time to work on the hive. Some believe the smoke causes bees to gorge on honey in case they have to abandon the hive to escape a fire. Experienced beekeepers only use a bee smoker on rare occasions. By moving calmly and deliberately around the hive, they greatly reduce the chances of being stung. This instrument was also used in the past.

Unknown

Wood, metal, leather, plastic
H = 12.50 cm, L = 21.60 cm, W = 23.40 cm
2004.33.3637
© 2013, Musée québécois de culture populaire. All Rights Reserved.


Wooden stool once used for milking.

In the past, farmers would sit on a stool like this one to milk each cow by hand. Today, milking machines allow farmers to milk many animals at once, in much less time.

Unknown

Wood, metal, iron
H = 27.50 cm, L = 29.00 cm, W = 28.50 cm
1983.5249
© 2013, Musée québécois de culture populaire. All Rights Reserved.


Young farmer presenting the bulk milk cooling tank that contains his cows' milk production.

The milk produced by all the cows in the herd flows through tubes into a large refrigerated milk tank with a 3,900 litre capacity. The tank stores two days' milk production.

Philippe Manning
2012-10-25
© 2013, Biophare. All Rights Reserved.


White and grey cabin on stilts during a spring flood

To avoid damage from spring floods, cabins built near the channels are raised on stilts.

Philippe Manning
2008-05-02
© 2013, Biophare. All Rights Reserved.


Cabin on stilts on Île Plate

The cabins on Île Plate are perched atop very high stilts to avoid damage during the spring floods, since this island is very flat.

Mario Cloutier
2012-08-04
© 2013, Biophare. All Rights Reserved.


View of a house on Île d'Embarras in winter

This house on Île d'Embarras, built in 1887, has several outbuildings with two floors. During the spring floods, animals would be brought up onto the second floor to keep them safe from drowning. Most cabins and houses in the archipelago are built on stilts.

Rita Lanctôt
c. 2010
© 2013, Biophare. All Rights Reserved.


Aerial photograph of the location of the Nicolet landslide of 1955

On November 12, 1955 at 11:50 a.m., a major landslide carrying 160,000 m3 of earth crashed into Nicolet, splitting the town in two. Part of the bishop's palace, the trade school, a service station and many homes were also swallowed up by the clay. Three people lost their lives in this disaster: a brother of the Christian schools, the cook of the trade school and a baby. In addition to these deaths and several injuries, the landslide caused around $10 million in damage in barely ten minutes.

Unknown

Black and white aerial photograph
© 2013, Archives du Séminaire de Nicolet. All Rights Reserved.


Red-brick house near Marguerite-D'Youville Park in Nicolet

This house, built on high ground just outside the area flattened by the landslide that hit Nicolet on November 12, 1955, barely escaped the disaster. Today, the area where the ground collapsed has become Marguerite-D'Youville Park. The Rue du 12-Novembre running along the park was named in memory of the tragic incident.

Philippe Manning
2012-10-26
© 2013, Biophare. All Rights Reserved.


Learning Objectives

Educational objectives

Based on the topics explored in the various sections of the virtual exhibit The Human Side of Lake Saint-Pierre, identify past and current practices and discuss the differences as a team.
 
Curricular connections

Connections will be established between the virtual exhibit and the contents of educational programs: awareness of interdependence between the environment and human activity; citizenship and community life; knowledge related to the organization of a society in its territory.

Learning outcomes

In the classroom, draw up a portrait of the differences and similarities between human activities in the region as practised in the past and in the present day.

Compare the different activities to assess how they have changed over time.

Measures taken to create a lesson plan based on the collection of learning objects

The class will complete a timeline (past, present, future) after hearing and discussing each team’s presentation. Each team will examine one type of activity. The timeline will provide an overview of the class discussion.

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