Students will investigate the volume and types of food consumed in the shanty lumber camps of the 1800s and early 1900s, and the daily preparation methods employed by the all-important camp cook.

Class Discussion: Camp Cooking
Begin with a class discussion of camp cooking at a campsite, cabin or hunt camp without the modern conveniences of propane fridges, stoves and generators. How is camp cooking different from cooking at home?
- food and utensils must be packed in and garbage packed out
- meals must be simple to prepare with limited variety
- cooking skills are different because meals are cooked over open fires or on wood stoves

Discuss how food becomes much more important when one is camping and/or working hard and living in the outdoors.

Discuss the shanty lumber camps. What do students know about them?

Activity:
Part 1: Shanty Camp Research
Students take notes while listening to audio clips, viewing images and reading excerpts from various publications to learn about life in the shanty camps of early Canada.

Part 2: Shanty Camp Floorplan Read More

Students will investigate the volume and types of food consumed in the shanty lumber camps of the 1800s and early 1900s, and the daily preparation methods employed by the all-important camp cook.

Class Discussion: Camp Cooking
Begin with a class discussion of camp cooking at a campsite, cabin or hunt camp without the modern conveniences of propane fridges, stoves and generators. How is camp cooking different from cooking at home?
- food and utensils must be packed in and garbage packed out
- meals must be simple to prepare with limited variety
- cooking skills are different because meals are cooked over open fires or on wood stoves

Discuss how food becomes much more important when one is camping and/or working hard and living in the outdoors.

Discuss the shanty lumber camps. What do students know about them?

Activity:
Part 1: Shanty Camp Research

Students take notes while listening to audio clips, viewing images and reading excerpts from various publications to learn about life in the shanty camps of early Canada.

Part 2: Shanty Camp Floorplan
Students will draw a typical shanty camp floorplan.

Part 3: Day-in-the-Life of a Shanty Camp Cook
Students will create a timeline of a typical day-in-the-life of a camp cook and calculate how much food would be needed to feed a given number of men in a typical shanty logging camp.


© 2007, Davenport Centre - Heritage Hall. All Rights Reserved.

Introduction
Throughout the 1800s and early 1900s, loggers toiled in the rugged wilderness to supply Canada's brand new forest products sector. Still one of our country's economic foundations, the forest industry facilitated ship and building construction and the development of many other products. A ready supply also meant Canada could export vast quantities of timber overseas to help rebuild Europe after the Napoleonic wars.

Located deep in this wilderness, shanties (derived from the French word chantier) were the heart of every lumber camp. Each rustic shanty served as sleeping quarters, dining room and kitchen for the lumbermen. Traditionally from September to May, up to 100 loggers would live, sleep and eat, cramped together in shanty accommodations. In the latter period, most lumber camps featured two buildings: one for sleeping and the other for cooking and dining; as well this is where the cook slept.

At the centre of the traditional shanty, beneath a large chimney in the roof, sat an open fire pit called the camboose. This pit was contained by a low log wall and filled with sand upon which a fire burned cont Read More

Introduction
Throughout the 1800s and early 1900s, loggers toiled in the rugged wilderness to supply Canada's brand new forest products sector. Still one of our country's economic foundations, the forest industry facilitated ship and building construction and the development of many other products. A ready supply also meant Canada could export vast quantities of timber overseas to help rebuild Europe after the Napoleonic wars.

Located deep in this wilderness, shanties (derived from the French word chantier) were the heart of every lumber camp. Each rustic shanty served as sleeping quarters, dining room and kitchen for the lumbermen. Traditionally from September to May, up to 100 loggers would live, sleep and eat, cramped together in shanty accommodations. In the latter period, most lumber camps featured two buildings: one for sleeping and the other for cooking and dining; as well this is where the cook slept.

At the centre of the traditional shanty, beneath a large chimney in the roof, sat an open fire pit called the camboose. This pit was contained by a low log wall and filled with sand upon which a fire burned continuously. In later years, a stove replaced the camboose, thereby reducing the smoke within the shanty.

For the hardworking loggers who needed to be well fed, the camp cook was very important, and his rules, such as no talking during meals, were well respected. When they had the chance, loggers would choose to work at camps based on the cook's reputation for serving tasty meals!

Early on there wasn't much variety on the shanty menu, but the food was usually hot, nourishing and plentiful. Later, the variety of food increased when more vegetables and fruits, and extras such as rice, butter and raisins were introduced.

Activity:
Part 1: SHANTY CAMP RESEARCH

Before you begin your research, read Parts 2 and 3 below to better understand what is required. Once you understand what you will be doing, begin gathering information from various sources to learn more about shanty camp lifestyle and foods.
1. Study the following five photographs and make notes:
Photo 1: Men of the Camp
Photo 2: Shanty Camp Exterior
Photo 3: Shanty Camp Interior
Photo 4: Shanty Cook at Camboose
Photo 5: Lumber Camp Dining Hall

2. Listen to the following audio clips and take notes.
(Please note that the people being interviewed were elderly at the time of recording and have now passed on. Their way of speaking is sometimes a little different than what is commonly heard today. Please be respectful.)
Audio 1: Hanna McGuey Hyland tells Rory MacKay about Camp Life
Audio 2: Henry McGuey tells Rory MacKay about Shanty Life

3. Read the following excerpts:
Excerpt 1: from Lumber Kings and Shantymen by David Lee
Except 2: from The Camboose Shanty by Charles Macnamara

Part 2: SHANTY CAMP FLOORPLAN
Using a blank sheet of paper, pencil and ruler, draw and label a floorplan of a typical shanty. Remember to consider the following:
- entrance
- camboose
- cooking areas and food storage
- washing-up facilities
- benches and bunk beds
- areas for sharpening axes and drying clothes

Part 3: A DAY-IN-THE-LIFE OF A CAMP COOK
1. In point form, outline a typical day-in-the-life of a shanty camp cook indicating approximate times of day, food prepared and related tasks. Consider the following:
- What time would the cook rise in order to serve breakfast?
- Whose responsibility is it to tend the fire?
- When did lunch preparations need to be complete?
- What time would the men stop working at end of day?
- When would the cook bake bread?
- How long would it take to bake a pot of beans?

2. Using the information below, calculate how much of each food type would be required to feed 105 men over a single logging season (September through May), if each man consumed:
- 0.79 barrels of salt pork
- 0.88 bushels of beans
- 7.1 pounds of tea
- 0.85 barrels of flour
- 3.6 gallons of corn syrup or molasses
- 5.7 pounds of tobacco

Spirits of the Little Bonnechere (page 49). Roderick MacKay. Friends of Bonnechere Parks, Pembroke, Ontario, 1996.


© 2007, Davenport Centre - Heritage Hall. All Rights Reserved.

Part 2: SHANTY CAMP FLOORPLAN
The shanty should have the following elements:
- log walls
- small door
- camboose (central open fire pit contained by logs and filled with sand)
- pile of firewood
- bunk beds along exterior walls (benches in front to eat from)
- bunks for the cook and cook's helper
- cookery area filled with work table and counters; barrels of water with drain trough to outside; stored food such as barrels of pork and sacks of flour
- wash stand with basin for personal grooming; barrel of water and drain trough to outside
- area for sharpening axes with grindstone
- clerk's desk and sundries chest

Part 3: A DAY-IN-THE-LIFE OF A CAMP COOK

1.
3:00 am to 4:00 am: cook awakes

4:00 am to 5:00 am:
- tend fire
- lay out the hot breakfast (beans, bread and tea) for loggers
- pack gang lunches of boiled salt pork, bread, dry tea leaves (hot tea was made in bush) and corn syrup or molasses if available

5:00 am to 6:00 pm:
- tend fire
- bake bread, boil salt pork, soak beans for tomorrow’s breakfast
- Read More

Part 2: SHANTY CAMP FLOORPLAN
The shanty should have the following elements:
- log walls
- small door
- camboose (central open fire pit contained by logs and filled with sand)
- pile of firewood
- bunk beds along exterior walls (benches in front to eat from)
- bunks for the cook and cook's helper
- cookery area filled with work table and counters; barrels of water with drain trough to outside; stored food such as barrels of pork and sacks of flour
- wash stand with basin for personal grooming; barrel of water and drain trough to outside
- area for sharpening axes with grindstone
- clerk's desk and sundries chest

Part 3: A DAY-IN-THE-LIFE OF A CAMP COOK

1.
3:00 am to 4:00 am: cook awakes

4:00 am to 5:00 am:
- tend fire
- lay out the hot breakfast (beans, bread and tea) for loggers
- pack gang lunches of boiled salt pork, bread, dry tea leaves (hot tea was made in bush) and corn syrup or molasses if available

5:00 am to 6:00 pm:
- tend fire
- bake bread, boil salt pork, soak beans for tomorrow’s breakfast
- tidy the cookery
- take a mid-day nap
- prepare supper of boiled potatoes and beef, and rice pudding or stewed dried apples

6:00 pm to 9:00 pm:
- tend fire
- lay out the hot supper
- tidy the cookery
- set soaked beans in fire for tomorrow’s breakfast

9:00 pm: cook goes to bed

2.
In one season (September through May) shanty camp of 105 men would consume over:
- 83 barrels of salt pork
- 9.2 bushels of beans
- 745.5 pounds of tea
- 89.3 barrels of flour
- 378 gallons of corn syrup or molasses
- 598.5 pounds of tobacco


© 2007, Davenport Centre - Heritage Hall. All Rights Reserved.

Doing hard labour in cold weather requires heavy inputs of calories to fuel the body. Shanty owners seldom stinted on quantity, but the food they provided was plain and monotonous because it was expensive to add piquancy and variety to diets in remote areas. In the early years the men lived on little more than salt pork, hardtack (tea biscuits), molasses, dried fish, and tea. Around the middle of the nineteenth century, owners made a few dietary improvements: bread, baked in the sand of the camboose, displaced hardtack; beans supplemented the pork ration; and rice and raisin puddings added a dessert to daily meals. Finally, late in the century, newly constructed railways made heavy, bulky and perishable foods more available... Beef, for example, could now be brought in on the hoof, adding fresh meat to shanty fare. Other additions included butter, sugar, potatoes for stews, peas for soups, and even canned goods. Shantymen savoured the change in diet...

Two staples - tea and salt pork - dominated shanty menus in the Ottawa Valley for more than a century... One traveller reported that shantymen insisted on a potable [tea] "strong enough to float an axe in." A Read More

Doing hard labour in cold weather requires heavy inputs of calories to fuel the body. Shanty owners seldom stinted on quantity, but the food they provided was plain and monotonous because it was expensive to add piquancy and variety to diets in remote areas. In the early years the men lived on little more than salt pork, hardtack (tea biscuits), molasses, dried fish, and tea. Around the middle of the nineteenth century, owners made a few dietary improvements: bread, baked in the sand of the camboose, displaced hardtack; beans supplemented the pork ration; and rice and raisin puddings added a dessert to daily meals. Finally, late in the century, newly constructed railways made heavy, bulky and perishable foods more available... Beef, for example, could now be brought in on the hoof, adding fresh meat to shanty fare. Other additions included butter, sugar, potatoes for stews, peas for soups, and even canned goods. Shantymen savoured the change in diet...

Two staples - tea and salt pork - dominated shanty menus in the Ottawa Valley for more than a century... One traveller reported that shantymen insisted on a potable [tea] "strong enough to float an axe in." Another described the tea he found in the shanties as "not the effeminate trash which we drink [in the cities]. It is, like patent medicines, a double distilled, highly concentrated, compact extract of the Chinese shrub. It is, in fact, a tea soup... The taste of this tea is alkaline, and it has a decided coppery flavor... On the Ottawa there are thousands of men who drink their pound of tea per week, and some double this quantity."

The men drank tea several times a day, with sugar, no milk. Tea was probably the men's main source of Vitamin C, saving them from the ravages of scurvy. Also, since they usually had lunch in the bush, the tea they drank there was important in maintaining both body fluids and heat in cold weather...

The second staple, barrelled pork preserved in brine - provided the shantyman's main source of protein. The pork was either boiled and served directly from the pot or cooked in stews. However, in the years before beans were introduced, little more was added to the stews than flour and pork grease. The men preferred their pork fried, but shanty owners considered this method wasteful in a food that was so hard to deliver to remote areas. In 1857, a number of Ottawa Valley timbermen joined together to declare that they would no longer allow pork to be fried in their shanties; however, the prohibition provoked strong opposition among shantymen, and the policy was relaxed for a while. Nevertheless, the question of frying pork remained a source of dispute for the rest of the century... sometimes Valley shantymen were treated to fried pork on Sundays.


© 2006, James Lorimer & Company Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

The typical camboose shanty that housed 50 to 60 men was a low log building about 35 feet by 40 feet, with side walls six feet high and gables about 10 feet at the peak... The sole entrance to the shanty was a rather small door at the end of the building... Rarely there was a window... as a rule, there were no windows at all, and all the light and ventilation (not so much light but lots of ventilation) came through a large hole in the roof, 12 feet square, surrounded by a square chimney... this opening carried off the smoke of the camboose...

The inside plan of a shanty was not always exactly the same, but the following was a common arrangement... To the right of the door as you came in was a pile of four foot firewood. The hardworking chore boy had to provide about a cord and a half every 24 hours, as well as six large "back logs." In front of the door, between it and the camboose, was the place of the grindstones, usually two, which in the evening were in constant use sharpening axes... To the left of the door, were two barrels of wash water, and a stand for a couple of wash basins. There was a spout through the logs here to empty out the dirty water. It often froz Read More

The typical camboose shanty that housed 50 to 60 men was a low log building about 35 feet by 40 feet, with side walls six feet high and gables about 10 feet at the peak... The sole entrance to the shanty was a rather small door at the end of the building... Rarely there was a window... as a rule, there were no windows at all, and all the light and ventilation (not so much light but lots of ventilation) came through a large hole in the roof, 12 feet square, surrounded by a square chimney... this opening carried off the smoke of the camboose...

The inside plan of a shanty was not always exactly the same, but the following was a common arrangement... To the right of the door as you came in was a pile of four foot firewood. The hardworking chore boy had to provide about a cord and a half every 24 hours, as well as six large "back logs." In front of the door, between it and the camboose, was the place of the grindstones, usually two, which in the evening were in constant use sharpening axes... To the left of the door, were two barrels of wash water, and a stand for a couple of wash basins. There was a spout through the logs here to empty out the dirty water. It often froze up in winter and the ice had to be forcibly punched out. Next in the corner stood the cook's water barrel, and along the wall came the cook's shelf for meat and other stores, the cook's work table and the bread shelf. Farther along this side, the clerk had his desk and beside it, the van chest which held the tobacco, moccasins, clothing and sundries for sale to the men. The right side of the building was taken up by two tiers of bunks, six or seven in each tier, and across the end farthest from the door were two more tiers of seven bunks, in which the men slept with their feet to the fire. Continuing down the left wall, before you came to the clerk's outfit, there might be four more bunks, and this was where the foreman slept. Often his was the only bunk in this corner. A bench of flatted timber resting on blocks extended along in front of the bunks...

And now for the camboose, the heart of the shanty... It was a square of logs in the middle of the shanty, 12 feet each way, retaining a foot or so of earth and sand, on which a fire for heating and cooking burned day and night. Four posts at the four corners rose to the low roof, and to one of them was attached the cramier... the ingenious adjustable crane that swung the pots over the fire. One end of the camboose was divided off by a log into a separate trough filled with sand. In this place, known as the "bean poles" beans and bread were baked in cast iron bake kettles buried in the hot sand. The "cook's shovel" used to bury the kettles was round-pointed with a short socket into which the cook fitted a long straight handle...

[The cooks would test the sand by spitting on it. If the spit sizzled, the sand was sufficiently hot. Later on, when wood-fired stoves replaced the open fire of the camboose, cooks would test the temperature inside the oven by sticking a hand in.]

The "cookery" consisted of about four camp kettles, large iron pots of 10 or 12 gallons with pails and tin covers, seven or eight bake-kettles, cast iron "ovens" 14" to 16" in diameter and 4” to 5" deep with cast iron covers and lugs, a five gallon tin tea pail and a large dish pan. Other appliances were several pairs of pot hooks of various sizes to handle the kettles and pots. What might be called the tableware if there had been any table - but there wasn't - were tea dishes (pannikins), tin plates, and soup spoons. No knives or forks were provided. Each man brought a small butcher knife and fork and the experienced shantyman used it with neatness and dexterity. Between meals it was stuck in the wall of the owner's bunk.

At night the camboose fire supplied the only light... [and it] lit up the shanty better than lamps could have. It was as large and cheerful as a good sized bonfire, and it never went out... .the cook began his day at anything between three and four in the morning... Eight o'clock was a late hour in the shanty. Everyone had to be at his place of work [in the forest] by break of day, and the farther he had to go the earlier he started. He stayed on the job until sundown and then walked back, often several miles, to the shanty...

The camboose shanty was the old original cafeteria. There was no table and everyone served himself. Getting a tea dish, a tin plate and a hunk of bread from the cook's shelves, the hungry man took whatever food he wanted from the pots and kettles around the fire; then, sitting on the bench with his brimming tea dish beside him and his heaped plate on his knee, he proceeded to eat with the ready help of his butcher knife. For the perfection of hospitality, you had to come to the camboose. Food was always ready; no one pressed you to eat, and no one stopped you. You ate as much as you pleased and at any time. Some even got up in the middle of the night for a snack....

With his simple open fire and his few pots and kettles, it was surprising what well-prepared food the camboose cook could set out. All this dishes were fine examples of good plain cooking, and the bread baked in the sand was particularly fine. It was close-grained yet light and of a delectable nutty flavor. The latest electric ovens of these days produce nothing better - if as good...

While the food was unlimited in quantity and excellent in quality, it was lacking in variety... Breakfast was always about the same: baked beans, bread and tea, green tea; black tea and coffee were never used. Some men liked to add a little black strap molasses to their beans...

Each gang working together in the woods: logmakers, road cutters, teamster, skidder, took a lunch with them in a cotton bag. It consisted simply of boiled salt pork - very fat Chicago heavy mess - and bread and tea. A wise precaution was to bury the lunch bag in the snow to hide it from the ravens, who liked nothing better than to tear it open with their powerful beaks and devour the lunch... At noon the men met around a camp fire and boiled their tea and sometimes had to thaw out the bread by holding it on a stick close to the flame. The teamster gave his horses their oats, and the men ate the fat pork and smoked their pipes a while before going back to work. This sounds like frugal fare, but I have seldom enjoyed a meal as much as the bread and pork at a logmaker's fire in the winter woods.

Supper was the principal meal of the day. The main course was a camp kettle full of boiled beef and another of boiled potatoes. Salt pork also was available, and dessert would be represented by boiled rice with raisins and stewed dried apples flavored with cinnamon... There was always unlimited bread and sometimes rather high-flavored butter. Sea pie was the special treat on Sunday morning. A couple of bake kettles were filled with pork, beef, bread and dough with plenty of fat and buried in the hot sand to bake. Old shantymen lick their lips when they think of sea pie. Another Sunday special was "des grillades": mess pork cut into slices and fried. This was very good eating but it was considered a wasteful way of cooking pork... Once in a while pea soup was served; and if there was any baking powder the cook would make a batch of enormous cookies the size of a tea plate. They were tasty enough but not what you might call rich. Also there was generally a barrel of shanty biscuit (hardtack) on hand for use before the cook got his bread baked, or in emergencies and on journeys...

In general, the men were satisfied with their lot and their work, and did not think that they were suffering any particular hardships. They felt at home in the shanty and enjoyed the freedom of the life... They were content to be largely cut off from the outside world until the creeks began to break up in the spring and it was time to get the rigging for the drive ready.

In general, the men were satisfied with their lot and their work, and did not think that they were suffering any particular hardships. They felt at home in the shanty and enjoyed the freedom of the life... They were content to be largely cut off from the outside world until the creeks began to break up in the spring and it was time to get the rigging for the drive ready.


© 1959 Ontario History: The Quarterly Journal of the Ontario Historical Society

Photo of loggers standing in front of a shanty in winter.

Loggers standing in front of a shanty logging camp in winter.

Charlton, John A.
c. 1900
Ontario, CANADA
C-075264
© Library and Archives Canada. All Rights Reserved.


Photo of exterior of a shanty logging camp in winter.

A shanty logging camp in winter.

Charles Macnamara
c. 1900
Ontario, CANADA
C 120-3-0-0-109, S 5154
© Archives of Ontario. All Rights Reserved.


Photo of early Canadian loggers sitting around a camboose fire inside a shanty camp.

Early Canadian loggers sitting around a camboose fire inside a shanty camp.

W.H. Harmer
c. 1900
Ontario, CANADA
C-025718
© Library and Archives Canada. All Rights Reserved.


Photo of shanty camp cook tending the pots over a camboose firepit.

Shanty camp cook tending the pots over a camboose firepit.

McLachlin Brothers
c. 1903
Ontario, CANADA
C 120-2, Acc. 2271
© Archives of Ontario. All Rights Reserved.


Photo of cooks standing inside a traditional lumber camp kitchen and dining hall.

Cooks standing inside a traditional lumber camp kitchen and dining hall.

unknown
c. 1905
Ontario, CANADA
1026; Hist #134
© MNR Province of Ontario, Department of Lands and Forests. All Rights Reserved.


Hanna (McGuey) Hyland tells Rory MacKay about Camp Life

H: They were all log shanties, you know. The men all ate and slept and everything in one room. They had a caboose [camboose] that time instead of stoves.
R: Uh-huh. Did you ever see the inside of one of those shanties, then?
H: Oh, yeah.
R: And what was it like? Was it a pretty dark place?
H: It was dark. Yeah, it was dark. The bunks was all built around then, you know, across one end. Two tiers of bunks, and the bench along the front of the bunks for the men to sit on. And each man would take his dish and help himself at the caboose [camboose], and go and sit down at his bed for a decent meal. There was no tables or chairs or nothing like that.
R: I see. What kind of bed was it? You said it was a bunk. Did it have a mattress?
H: No, when I was a kid, it was all brush, spruce or balsam brush. Then they started cutting marsh hay. They used to use marsh hay; it was better than the brush, it was softer. But I remember when we used to take our cattle, and they were just about four miles from where we lived. When the camp broke up and they moved out, we’d take all of our cattle over there and leave them there for the duration of the spring. Lots of hay left, you know, in the bunks and everything, and in the stables and every place. There’d be lots of hay left around.

Hanna (McGuey) Hyland, Rory MacKay
c. 1900
Ontario, CANADA
© 1976, Friends of Algonquin Park. All Rights Reserved.


Henry McGuey tells Rory MacKay about Shanty Life, 1976

H: They had a caboose [camboose]. You make a fire right in the centre of that. The caboose is there and you make a fire like in the fireplace, one of them fireplace, you know? And there was a pipe that would go up here, you know, and take the smoke out.
R: I see.
H: And the fire was here and everybody gathered around that and dry their clothes, yeah. I seen them, I seen them. Yeah, I saw, but I never was old enough to be working when they were using them.
R: Can you give me a little bit of an impression of what it was like inside? Was it well-lit, or…?
H: Well, as far as that go, there’s surely a lot of light now. And there was surely a lot more light than one without it. Because when that part was on, it throws a lot of light on a dark night.
R: I see.
H: But you still…all they had was coal oil in them days.
R: Was it drafty inside?
H: No. They were prepared for that, you don't want too much draft on this. They wanted the fire to burn slow and not make a great big blaze. They had hardwood, they used hardwood, you know, they smoke that, dry hardwood. To hold the fire and hold the heat, but don't forget they used to cook in that too. They'd make homemade beans in that, in the sand. They put the bake kettle right down in the hot sand and leave it there all night and you have lovely beans in the morning. Oh, yeah that's what the caboose — the caboose [camboose] would make. Made square, good size, made square, and there was a pipe run down here, up to the top of the roof of the camp. And that was there and there was forms built on the side here. You know, I have seen a lot of places where they bend down tin on the side here. Sometimes you'd see when they’re threshing grain on the machine, you see these coats hang over here to draw any dust. And that was hanging over around that big pipe here and then when it sucks mud, it goes right up, and draws that too.
R: I see.
H: And any blaze that comes, it'll be up there. But no sparks in there at all, but a lot of heat all around. Oh, the camp was nice and warm.
R: Now, you mentioned that the men would gather round and dry their clothes. Did they have a rack that they put their clothes on?
H: Yeah, they had a rack of poles.
R: I see.
H: With hooks on them.
R: Well, what kind of stuff would they have to dry?
H: Well, now they'd have to dry, in them days in the lumber camps, they'd wore nothing but Macinaw pants. Heavy Macinaw pants, heavy underwear, everything was heavy, you're out in the cold four o'clock in the morning with your team of horses and you're out there to maybe nine o'clock at night. Long day to make a dollar, you know.

Henry McGuey, Rory MacKay
c. 1900
Ontario, CANADA
© 2007, Friends of Algonquin. All Rights Reserved.


Learning Objectives

* demonstrate an understanding of our Canadian food heritage
* determine the contribution of cultural and regional foods in the development of our Canadian food heritage and culture
* demonstrate appropriate use of social science research methods in the investigation of food-related issues
* organize, interpret, and communicate the results of their inquiries, using a variety of methods (e.g., graphs, diagrams, oral presentations, newspaper articles, hypermedia presentations, and videos);
* correctly use food and nutrition terminology (e.g., nutrients, food heritage, indigenous foods, food traditions)


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