Lake of Jade, Mount Revelstoke

Example of Asymmetrical Balance

Vaughan Grayson
c. 1950s
CANADA Western Canada, Western Canada, CANADA
9-99-21-3
© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.


An asymmetrical balance can be envisaged within a composition when creating a visual balance with different objects or shapes; i.e. a large shape on one side of the axis, with many small shapes on the opposite side. Although each side is not the same shape and weight, visually, they balance each other with their respective weights. This principle will often create tension within a composition and, if done carefully, will make a composition more interesting to view.

An asymmetrical balance can be envisaged within a composition when creating a visual balance with different objects or shapes; i.e. a large shape on one side of the axis, with many small shapes on the opposite side. Although each side is not the same shape and weight, visually, they balance each other with their respective weights. This principle will often create tension within a composition and, if done carefully, will make a composition more interesting to view.

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

Balance is a principle of design. Most successful compositions use one of two ways to balance the image: a symmetrical balance, or an asymmetrical balance.

[Principles of Design: balance, proportion & scale, rhythm, emphasis & subordination, unity & variety]

Balance is a principle of design. Most successful compositions use one of two ways to balance the image: a symmetrical balance, or an asymmetrical balance.

[Principles of Design: balance, proportion & scale, rhythm, emphasis & subordination, unity & variety]

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

Douglas Fir, Kalamalka Lake

Example of Colour

Vaughan Grayson
Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery
c. 1950s
9.99.21.15
© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.


Colour is one of the most powerful and involved elements of art. Colour can emit strong emotions and also have symbolic meaning, which can be interpreted differently by each individual (i.e., white in one culture may symbolize purity, while in another culture black refers to purity and happiness).

Physics of Colour: Colour exists only in light; one pigment or hue combined with another can create different colours. All colours are affected by the colours around them (i.e., complementary colours next to each other - red and green - see 9.99.21.14).


[Elements of Art: line, shape & mass, colour, light & value, texture & pattern, space, time & motion]

Colour is one of the most powerful and involved elements of art. Colour can emit strong emotions and also have symbolic meaning, which can be interpreted differently by each individual (i.e., white in one culture may symbolize purity, while in another culture black refers to purity and happiness).

Physics of Colour: Colour exists only in light; one pigment or hue combined with another can create different colours. All colours are affected by the colours around them (i.e., complementary colours next to each other - red and green - see 9.99.21.14).


[Elements of Art: line, shape & mass, colour, light & value, texture & pattern, space, time & motion]


© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

Composition means the combining of parts to form a whole. Similar to arranging and composing furniture within a room, in an image or sculpture, it is a balanced arrangement of lines, tones, and shapes and spaces (all of the elements of art). In order to obtain a balanced and aesthetically pleasing composition, we arrange the elements of art with principles of design.
Composition means the combining of parts to form a whole. Similar to arranging and composing furniture within a room, in an image or sculpture, it is a balanced arrangement of lines, tones, and shapes and spaces (all of the elements of art). In order to obtain a balanced and aesthetically pleasing composition, we arrange the elements of art with principles of design.

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

Echo Rock, Yellow Lake, B.C.

Example of Delineation

Vaughan Grayson
c. 1951
CANADA Western Canada, Western Canada, CANADA
9-99-21-1
© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.


The edition is a specific limited number of prints printed from the same plate. The artist will sign the print indicating which part of the edition that print is. For example: 11/25 indicates that this print is the 11th print signed out of a total of 25 prints printed. This number excludes any proofs printed (i.e., A/P - artist’s proof).
The edition is a specific limited number of prints printed from the same plate. The artist will sign the print indicating which part of the edition that print is. For example: 11/25 indicates that this print is the 11th print signed out of a total of 25 prints printed. This number excludes any proofs printed (i.e., A/P - artist’s proof).

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

Specific art elements are used to construct a work of art; these are: line, shape & mass, colour, light & value, texture & pattern, space, time & motion. They are constructed or organized within a work of art using certain principles, which are called the Principles of Design (defined below).

Specific art elements are used to construct a work of art; these are: line, shape & mass, colour, light & value, texture & pattern, space, time & motion. They are constructed or organized within a work of art using certain principles, which are called the Principles of Design (defined below).

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

These two principles exist together as one of the principles of art. Emphasis is used to focus the viewer’s attention on one or more parts of the composition by accentuating forms or line, or intensifying colours, etc. Subordination refers to those areas in a composition that are purposely made less interesting, so that the area of emphasis stands out.

[Principles of Design: balance, proportion & scale, rhythm, emphasis & subordination, unity & variety]
These two principles exist together as one of the principles of art. Emphasis is used to focus the viewer’s attention on one or more parts of the composition by accentuating forms or line, or intensifying colours, etc. Subordination refers to those areas in a composition that are purposely made less interesting, so that the area of emphasis stands out.

[Principles of Design: balance, proportion & scale, rhythm, emphasis & subordination, unity & variety]

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

The horizon line is the line at which the sky meets the earth at either land or sea.
The horizon line is the line at which the sky meets the earth at either land or sea.

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

Light and value are two associated elements of art. Value is the product of light - through many different values, it can give the illusion of three dimensions; a smooth gradation of value is called modeling.

[Elements of art: line, shape & mass, colour, light & value, texture & pattern, space, time & motion]
Light and value are two associated elements of art. Value is the product of light - through many different values, it can give the illusion of three dimensions; a smooth gradation of value is called modeling.

[Elements of art: line, shape & mass, colour, light & value, texture & pattern, space, time & motion]

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

Indian Rock Painting

Example of Line

Vaughan Grayson
c. 1950s
CANADA Western Canada, Western Canada, CANADA
9.99.21.32
© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.


Line is one of the elements of art; it is the path of a moving point. It can record borders of different forms in space, or can be used to convey direction, movement, or expression.

[Elements of art: line, shape & mass, colour, light & value, texture & pattern, space, time & motion]
Line is one of the elements of art; it is the path of a moving point. It can record borders of different forms in space, or can be used to convey direction, movement, or expression.

[Elements of art: line, shape & mass, colour, light & value, texture & pattern, space, time & motion]

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

Modeling is a term used when the illusion of three dimensions is obtained on a two-dimensional surface. A subtle transition in tone from light to dark determines the sense of depth the artist desires (see light & value).
Modeling is a term used when the illusion of three dimensions is obtained on a two-dimensional surface. A subtle transition in tone from light to dark determines the sense of depth the artist desires (see light & value).

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

There are numerous definitions of an original print, but for our purposes an original print means that an image was created through a printmaking process, using a matrix (with the possibility of multiple images). Each subsequent impression made with this same matrix is an original print. Mechanical reproductions, or copies of an original work of art created in a different medium other than printmaking (i.e., oil on canvas), are not considered original prints.
There are numerous definitions of an original print, but for our purposes an original print means that an image was created through a printmaking process, using a matrix (with the possibility of multiple images). Each subsequent impression made with this same matrix is an original print. Mechanical reproductions, or copies of an original work of art created in a different medium other than printmaking (i.e., oil on canvas), are not considered original prints.

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

A palette refers to the pigments an artist has chosen for one work of art, or a series of works of art.
A palette refers to the pigments an artist has chosen for one work of art, or a series of works of art.

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

Deep Cove, Vancouver Island, B.C.

Example of Perspective

Vaughan Grayson
c. 1950
CANADA Western Canada, Western Canada, CANADA
9.99.21.9
© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.


Perspective is one way in which to portray the illusion of depth on a two-dimensional surface; linear perspective and atmospheric perspective are common techniques to accomplish this. In one-point linear perspective, the illusion of depth is created by drawing parallel lines that will recede to a single point on the viewer’s horizon line. In atmospheric perspective, the illusion of depth is created by changing colour intensity, value gradations and detail.
Perspective is one way in which to portray the illusion of depth on a two-dimensional surface; linear perspective and atmospheric perspective are common techniques to accomplish this. In one-point linear perspective, the illusion of depth is created by drawing parallel lines that will recede to a single point on the viewer’s horizon line. In atmospheric perspective, the illusion of depth is created by changing colour intensity, value gradations and detail.

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

A plate is a matrix that holds the design of an original print; it can be made with numerous materials, some of which are wood, zinc, copper, plexiglass, cardboard, stone, and screen.
A plate is a matrix that holds the design of an original print; it can be made with numerous materials, some of which are wood, zinc, copper, plexiglass, cardboard, stone, and screen.

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

There are a number of concepts used to organize or arrange a composition; they are balance, proportion & scale, rhythm, emphasis & subordination, unity & variety.
There are a number of concepts used to organize or arrange a composition; they are balance, proportion & scale, rhythm, emphasis & subordination, unity & variety.

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

In order to check the progress of a print the artist is working on and to allow possible revisions, proofs are printed. These are pulled prior to the edition being printed. Trial proofs (T/P) are printed specifically for this purpose. An artist’s proof (A/P) is the final print pulled during its working progress; the artist is satisfied with the image and the printing process and approves this specific print to be the one with which the quality of the fully-printed edition will be measured.
In order to check the progress of a print the artist is working on and to allow possible revisions, proofs are printed. These are pulled prior to the edition being printed. Trial proofs (T/P) are printed specifically for this purpose. An artist’s proof (A/P) is the final print pulled during its working progress; the artist is satisfied with the image and the printing process and approves this specific print to be the one with which the quality of the fully-printed edition will be measured.

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

Proportion is the relationship of different shapes and sizes to one another within one composition. Smaller elements of the same shape tend to recede into the background, while the larger ones will remain in the foreground.

[Principles of Design: balance, proportion & scale, rhythm, emphasis & subordination, unity & variety]
Proportion is the relationship of different shapes and sizes to one another within one composition. Smaller elements of the same shape tend to recede into the background, while the larger ones will remain in the foreground.

[Principles of Design: balance, proportion & scale, rhythm, emphasis & subordination, unity & variety]

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

This is a system used to align multiple plates or supports to print one image with multiple colours of ink.
This is a system used to align multiple plates or supports to print one image with multiple colours of ink.

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

Rhythm is created through the repetition of the same elements, or different elements in a repeated pattern, which creates movement within a composition. Your eye is invited to follow through the composition; it can be a flowing movement or an excited, quick movement.

[Principles of Design: balance, proportion & scale, rhythm, emphasis & subordination, unity & variety]
Rhythm is created through the repetition of the same elements, or different elements in a repeated pattern, which creates movement within a composition. Your eye is invited to follow through the composition; it can be a flowing movement or an excited, quick movement.

[Principles of Design: balance, proportion & scale, rhythm, emphasis & subordination, unity & variety]

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

Thunderbird and Killer Whale

Example of Rhythm

Vaughan Grayson
c. 1950s
9.99.21.4
© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.


see Silkscreen
see Silkscreen

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

Shape & Mass are two associated elements of art. Shape is considered the two-dimensional boundary made within a picture plane; whereas mass is the three-dimensional volume of space - implied or actual.

[Elements of art: line, shape & mass, colour, light & value, texture & pattern, space, time & motion]
Shape & Mass are two associated elements of art. Shape is considered the two-dimensional boundary made within a picture plane; whereas mass is the three-dimensional volume of space - implied or actual.

[Elements of art: line, shape & mass, colour, light & value, texture & pattern, space, time & motion]

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

This process of printmaking (often referred to as serigraphy) is used with a tightly stretched fabric pulled over a frame. Ink is forced through the fine mesh of the fabric onto another surface; certain areas can be blocked or masked out in order to form the desired image. A stencil technique is often used to create the image.

Origins of Silkscreen and Serigraph

The term silkscreen is believed to originate from Japan in the late 13th and 14th centuries where they attached to their delicate stencils (in order to hold them together) a very fine grid of hair or silk threads. This may have suggested the later use of silk fabric as the printing vehicle for screen printing.

It was not until the 1930s that silkscreen printing was used for personal expression. Prior to this, it was always associated in the West with commercial use; very seldom was it taken seriously as an art form. It was because of this that a group of artists decided to change the name of silkscreen Read More
This process of printmaking (often referred to as serigraphy) is used with a tightly stretched fabric pulled over a frame. Ink is forced through the fine mesh of the fabric onto another surface; certain areas can be blocked or masked out in order to form the desired image. A stencil technique is often used to create the image.

Origins of Silkscreen and Serigraph

The term silkscreen is believed to originate from Japan in the late 13th and 14th centuries where they attached to their delicate stencils (in order to hold them together) a very fine grid of hair or silk threads. This may have suggested the later use of silk fabric as the printing vehicle for screen printing.

It was not until the 1930s that silkscreen printing was used for personal expression. Prior to this, it was always associated in the West with commercial use; very seldom was it taken seriously as an art form. It was because of this that a group of artists decided to change the name of silkscreen to serigraph, from the Latin word seri (meaning “silk”) and the Greek word graphos (meaning “to draw or write”). The first serigraph exhibit was organized at the Philadelphia Museum of Fine Arts in April 1940.

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

Space is an element of art and can be referred to as actual space or implied space (i.e. linear/atmospheric perspective, overlapping shapes, different sized shapes, etc.).

Positive and negative space can be two-dimensional or three-dimensional and always works in tandem, wherein the positive space is usually the space within the composition that is filled with something (i.e. colour, lines, etc.). The negative space is usually the empty areas in a composition. To create a more dynamic image, artists will sometimes switch the positive and negative spaces around.

[Elements of art: line, shape & mass, colour, light & value, texture & pattern, space, time & motion]
Space is an element of art and can be referred to as actual space or implied space (i.e. linear/atmospheric perspective, overlapping shapes, different sized shapes, etc.).

Positive and negative space can be two-dimensional or three-dimensional and always works in tandem, wherein the positive space is usually the space within the composition that is filled with something (i.e. colour, lines, etc.). The negative space is usually the empty areas in a composition. To create a more dynamic image, artists will sometimes switch the positive and negative spaces around.

[Elements of art: line, shape & mass, colour, light & value, texture & pattern, space, time & motion]

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

A squeegee is a blade made of rubber or plastic, set in a wooden or plastic handle, and is used to push and pull the ink across the screen onto the print.

A squeegee is a blade made of rubber or plastic, set in a wooden or plastic handle, and is used to push and pull the ink across the screen onto the print.

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

A stencil can be made with paper, fabric, or plastic material. It is usually a cut-out design placed on the screen surface to resist areas of ink that are forced through the fine mesh of the screen.
A stencil can be made with paper, fabric, or plastic material. It is usually a cut-out design placed on the screen surface to resist areas of ink that are forced through the fine mesh of the screen.

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

A symmetrical balance is used within a composition when having an equal weight of elements on each side of the picture plane - horizontally, or vertically, or with a centred axis (as in radial balance).
A symmetrical balance is used within a composition when having an equal weight of elements on each side of the picture plane - horizontally, or vertically, or with a centred axis (as in radial balance).

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

Echo Rock, Yellow Lake, B.C.

Vaughan Grayson

9.99.21.1
© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.


Texture and pattern are two associated elements of art. Texture relates to the surface quality of something - implied or actual; pattern refers to a repeated motif or design.

[Elements of art: line, shape & mass, colour, light & value, texture & pattern, space, time & motion]

Texture and pattern are two associated elements of art. Texture relates to the surface quality of something - implied or actual; pattern refers to a repeated motif or design.

[Elements of art: line, shape & mass, colour, light & value, texture & pattern, space, time & motion]

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

Douglas Fir, Okanagan Lake, B.C.

Example of Rule of Thirds

Vaughan Grayson
c. XXth
CANADA Western Canada, Western Canada, CANADA
9.99.21.15
© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.


A compositional term used to divide the picture plane into three equal spaces - horizontally and vertically. It is believed that the focal point of an image should stay away from the centre of the picture plane, as well as the margins.
A compositional term used to divide the picture plane into three equal spaces - horizontally and vertically. It is believed that the focal point of an image should stay away from the centre of the picture plane, as well as the margins.

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

Time and motion are two associated elements of art, which can refer to actual or implied time and motion within a work of art.

[Elements of art: line, shape & mass, colour, light & value, texture & pattern, space, time & motion]
Time and motion are two associated elements of art, which can refer to actual or implied time and motion within a work of art.

[Elements of art: line, shape & mass, colour, light & value, texture & pattern, space, time & motion]

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

see Proof
see Proof

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

Ogopogo - Okanagan Lake, B.C.

Example of Unity & Variety

Vaughan Grayson
c. 1950s
CANADA Western Canada, Western Canada, CANADA
9.99.21.33
© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.


These principles exist together; without one, the other would fail. Unity is a sense of belonging together (i.e., tones of one colour [monochromatic], or a series of similar shapes); variety provides interest or change.

[Principles of Design: balance, proportion & scale, rhythm, emphasis & subordination, unity & variety]
These principles exist together; without one, the other would fail. Unity is a sense of belonging together (i.e., tones of one colour [monochromatic], or a series of similar shapes); variety provides interest or change.

[Principles of Design: balance, proportion & scale, rhythm, emphasis & subordination, unity & variety]

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

see Light and Value
see Light and Value

© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.



© 2007, Moose Jaw Art Museum Incorporated/Moose Jaw Museum & Art Gallery. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives

To describe, analyze and interpret art works using appropriate vocabulary.

 


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