Born in Kiev in 1878. Died in Leningrad (St. Petersburg) in 1935. Together with Kandinsky and Mondrian, Kazimir Malevich was one of the founders and theoreticians of non-objective art. He studied first in Kiev, and at the beginning of the 1900s, in Moscow, at the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecutre and the studio of F.I. Rerberg. This was a time of discoveries for the young artist. In Moscow, thanks to the extensive collections of French paintings owned by S.I. Shchukin and I.A. Morozov, Malevich learned about Impressionism, Cubism and Fauvism, became good friends with young artists, and participated in exhibitions of “The Jack of Diamonds” and “Donkey’s Tail” groups. Having gotten over his interest in Impressionism, during which he painted mainly sketches from life, Malevich took an interest in Cubo-Futurism. He began to work with the poets Alexei Kruchenykh and Velimir Khlebnikov, and in 1913 created the decor for the futuristic opera “Victory Over the Sun” (libretto by Kruchenykh, prologue by Khlebnikov, music by Mikhail Matyushin). This was the period of alogism, of unintelligible creative work, which would be replaced by a Read More
Born in Kiev in 1878. Died in Leningrad (St. Petersburg) in 1935. Together with Kandinsky and Mondrian, Kazimir Malevich was one of the founders and theoreticians of non-objective art. He studied first in Kiev, and at the beginning of the 1900s, in Moscow, at the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecutre and the studio of F.I. Rerberg. This was a time of discoveries for the young artist. In Moscow, thanks to the extensive collections of French paintings owned by S.I. Shchukin and I.A. Morozov, Malevich learned about Impressionism, Cubism and Fauvism, became good friends with young artists, and participated in exhibitions of “The Jack of Diamonds” and “Donkey’s Tail” groups. Having gotten over his interest in Impressionism, during which he painted mainly sketches from life, Malevich took an interest in Cubo-Futurism. He began to work with the poets Alexei Kruchenykh and Velimir Khlebnikov, and in 1913 created the decor for the futuristic opera “Victory Over the Sun” (libretto by Kruchenykh, prologue by Khlebnikov, music by Mikhail Matyushin). This was the period of alogism, of unintelligible creative work, which would be replaced by a trend of art developed by Malevich himself—Suprematism. In 1915, Malevich created the most renowned of his works, Black Square, which was first displayed at the “0.10” exhibition in Petrograd along with 38 other Suprematist works, thus issuing the manifesto of Suprematism. The revolutionary events in Russia were in keeping with the revolutionary nature of Malevich’s art. As early as 1919, Malevich’s first personal exhibition was opened in Moscow. From 1919 to 1922, the artist lived and worked in Vitebsk, and began to teach. From among his pupils, he formed the group “Unovis” (Affirmers of the New Art). During these years, Malevich created most of his philosophical-theoretical texts. From 1923, the artist lived in Petrograd, and continued to teach. In the mid 1920s, he went on to construct spatial Suprematist compositions called architectons. In 1927, Malevich exhibited his works abroad for the first time in Berlin. Later, the creative work of Malevich was marked by a return to figurative art.

Works
Spring, A Garden In Bloom - 1904, oil on canvas, State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow
A Station With No Stop, Kuntsevo - 1913, oil on wood, State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Mikhailovskaya stanitsa (a large Cossack village) in the Khoper district of the Don Army Region (now Uryupinsk district of the Volgograd region) in 1881. Died in Moscow in 1944. Mashkov began his artistic career with the making of signboards, which explains why many of his works are reminiscent of Primitivism. In the 1900s, the artist studied under V.A. Serov at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. In 1908, he made a trip to Europe, after which he became an adherent of the Russian Fauvists. In 1910, he actively participated in the organization of the first exhibition of “The Jack of Diamonds” group. He was a member of this group, and took part in all of its exhibitions. Mashkov’s main genre was still life, but he also did landscapes and portraits.

Works
A Town in Switzerland - 1914, oil on canvas. Nizhny Novgorod State Museum of Art
Geneva Lake, Glion Read More
Born in Mikhailovskaya stanitsa (a large Cossack village) in the Khoper district of the Don Army Region (now Uryupinsk district of the Volgograd region) in 1881. Died in Moscow in 1944. Mashkov began his artistic career with the making of signboards, which explains why many of his works are reminiscent of Primitivism. In the 1900s, the artist studied under V.A. Serov at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. In 1908, he made a trip to Europe, after which he became an adherent of the Russian Fauvists. In 1910, he actively participated in the organization of the first exhibition of “The Jack of Diamonds” group. He was a member of this group, and took part in all of its exhibitions. Mashkov’s main genre was still life, but he also did landscapes and portraits.

Works
A Town in Switzerland - 1914, oil on canvas. Nizhny Novgorod State Museum of Art
Geneva Lake, Glion - 1914, oil on canvas. State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Nizhny Novgorod in 1902. Died in Moscow in 1996. During 1921–1929, Mavrina studied at the Higher State Art and Craft Shops (Vkhutemas from 1921 to 1926), later the Higher State Art and Craft Institute (Vkhutein from 1926 to 1930) under N.V. Sinezubov, G.V. Fyodorov and R.R. Falk, and was a member of “The Thirteen” group. Unlike other members of the group, Mavrina began to paint in a bright and open manner similar to Primitivism under the influence of old Russian and folk art. The vivid decorativeness and sharpness of her work, her ingenuous perception of the world, her ironic and artistic quality of execution was seen not only in her paintings, but also in her book illustrations (more than 200 books), posters, and theatrical and film work. The artist succeeded in creating her unique “mavrinian” style. She collected old icons and folk art, and was the only Soviet artist to be awarded the Andersen Prize for her contribution to the illustration of children’s books.

Works
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Born in Nizhny Novgorod in 1902. Died in Moscow in 1996. During 1921–1929, Mavrina studied at the Higher State Art and Craft Shops (Vkhutemas from 1921 to 1926), later the Higher State Art and Craft Institute (Vkhutein from 1926 to 1930) under N.V. Sinezubov, G.V. Fyodorov and R.R. Falk, and was a member of “The Thirteen” group. Unlike other members of the group, Mavrina began to paint in a bright and open manner similar to Primitivism under the influence of old Russian and folk art. The vivid decorativeness and sharpness of her work, her ingenuous perception of the world, her ironic and artistic quality of execution was seen not only in her paintings, but also in her book illustrations (more than 200 books), posters, and theatrical and film work. The artist succeeded in creating her unique “mavrinian” style. She collected old icons and folk art, and was the only Soviet artist to be awarded the Andersen Prize for her contribution to the illustration of children’s books.

Works
A Street - 1933, oil on canvas. State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Ufa in 1862. Died in Moscow in 1942. Nesterov’s teachers were A.K. Savrasov, V.G. Perov and I.M. Prianishnikov at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, and P.P. Chistyakov at the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts. In 1896, the artist joined the Association of Traveling Art Exhibitions, and in 1903 became one of the organizers of the “Union of Russian Artists.” Nesterov’s early and mature creative work is linked with the period of Russia’s religious rebirth. He created not only easel paintings, but also church murals in Kiev and St. Petersburg. At the same time, he created special and very personal landscapes that were called “Nesterovian” landscapes. Sometimes his landscape is a separate genre, and at times it becomes the background of a religious painting or portrait, always demonstrating the quiet harmonious unity of man and nature. In the post-revolutionary years when religious paintings became inappropriate, Nesterov began to paint portraits of creative people such as artists and scientists—people from his own circle.

Works
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Born in Ufa in 1862. Died in Moscow in 1942. Nesterov’s teachers were A.K. Savrasov, V.G. Perov and I.M. Prianishnikov at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, and P.P. Chistyakov at the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts. In 1896, the artist joined the Association of Traveling Art Exhibitions, and in 1903 became one of the organizers of the “Union of Russian Artists.” Nesterov’s early and mature creative work is linked with the period of Russia’s religious rebirth. He created not only easel paintings, but also church murals in Kiev and St. Petersburg. At the same time, he created special and very personal landscapes that were called “Nesterovian” landscapes. Sometimes his landscape is a separate genre, and at times it becomes the background of a religious painting or portrait, always demonstrating the quiet harmonious unity of man and nature. In the post-revolutionary years when religious paintings became inappropriate, Nesterov began to paint portraits of creative people such as artists and scientists—people from his own circle.

Works
Silence - 1903, oil on canvas. State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow
Two Harmonies - 1905, oil on canvas. Nizhny Novgorod State Museum of Art
Autumn Landscape - 1906, oil on canvas. State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in the village of Kamyshlovskoye in the Tobolsk province in 1878. Died in Moscow in 1945.When his family moved to Altai territory, the young Nikulin began to study at the Barnaul Regional School of Mines. Several years later, thanks to money collected by the people of Barnaul, he went to St. Petersburg where he studied from 1898 to 1903 at the Central Technical Design School of Baron Schtiglitz, in the theatrical décor department. After he graduated as one of the best students, Nikulin went on a professional trip abroad. The two years spent in Europe were devoted to traveling and studying at the Julian Academy in Paris. His works of that period were influenced by the plein air paintings of the Impressionists. In 1906, he returned to Barnaul for a time, but then departed for Saratovo where he began teaching at the Bogoliubov School of Graphic Art. At the end of the 1900s, exhibitions of Nikulin’s works were held in Barnaul and Saratov, and in 1931 he participated in the international exhibition in Munich. During 1918–1923, Nikulin lived in Barnaul, and actively participated in the artistic life of the city. The artist spent his final years in the city of Mos Read More
Born in the village of Kamyshlovskoye in the Tobolsk province in 1878. Died in Moscow in 1945.When his family moved to Altai territory, the young Nikulin began to study at the Barnaul Regional School of Mines. Several years later, thanks to money collected by the people of Barnaul, he went to St. Petersburg where he studied from 1898 to 1903 at the Central Technical Design School of Baron Schtiglitz, in the theatrical décor department. After he graduated as one of the best students, Nikulin went on a professional trip abroad. The two years spent in Europe were devoted to traveling and studying at the Julian Academy in Paris. His works of that period were influenced by the plein air paintings of the Impressionists. In 1906, he returned to Barnaul for a time, but then departed for Saratovo where he began teaching at the Bogoliubov School of Graphic Art. At the end of the 1900s, exhibitions of Nikulin’s works were held in Barnaul and Saratov, and in 1931 he participated in the international exhibition in Munich. During 1918–1923, Nikulin lived in Barnaul, and actively participated in the artistic life of the city. The artist spent his final years in the city of Moscow, and worked at Mosfilm Studios.

Works
Altai, Thunderstorm on a Lake - 1910, oil on canvas. State Art Museum of Altayskiy Region
The Blue Altai (Altaian Glaciers) - 1910, oil on canvas. State Art Museum of Altayskiy Region

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Moscow in 1903. Died in the same city in 1977. During 1920–1925, Pimenov studied under S.V. Malyutin and V.A. Favorsky at the Higher State Art and Craft Shops (Vkhutemas). In 1925, he became one of the founders of the Society of Easel Painters (1925–1932). The master’s earlier works, with their at times grotesque characters, were reminiscent of German Expressionism. During the 1930s, Pimenov began to create paintings in which everyday scenes unfolded on the background of recognizable urban landscapes. Built on principles similar to cinematographic ones, these dynamic works were full of life’s optimism. Portraying Moscow, Pimenov depicted its changes from the 1930s to the 1960s. Besides easel paintings, the artist worked as a theatrical decorator, and taught at the Institute of Cinematography from 1945 to 1972.

Works
A New Moscow - 1937, oil on canvas. State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow
Born in Moscow in 1903. Died in the same city in 1977. During 1920–1925, Pimenov studied under S.V. Malyutin and V.A. Favorsky at the Higher State Art and Craft Shops (Vkhutemas). In 1925, he became one of the founders of the Society of Easel Painters (1925–1932). The master’s earlier works, with their at times grotesque characters, were reminiscent of German Expressionism. During the 1930s, Pimenov began to create paintings in which everyday scenes unfolded on the background of recognizable urban landscapes. Built on principles similar to cinematographic ones, these dynamic works were full of life’s optimism. Portraying Moscow, Pimenov depicted its changes from the 1930s to the 1960s. Besides easel paintings, the artist worked as a theatrical decorator, and taught at the Institute of Cinematography from 1945 to 1972.

Works
A New Moscow - 1937, oil on canvas. State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Samara in 1901. Died in Moscow in 1973. Plekhanov studied first at the Samara Art and Teachers College, and later in Moscow from 1923–1925 at the studio of D.N. Kardovsky. From 1925–1931, he studied at the studio of V.N. Yakovlev. At the same time, from 1925, he began to do restoration work under the guidance of I.E. Grabar. He restored 11th century frescos in Kiev, murals in the cathedrals and tower-chambers of the Moscow Kremlin, and also performed the difficult work of transferring a Vrubel mural painting to canvas. Plekhanov painted landscapes, portraits and genre works that were distinguished by a refined style of painting.

Works
Winter - 1935, oil on canvas, Samara Art Museum
Born in Samara in 1901. Died in Moscow in 1973. Plekhanov studied first at the Samara Art and Teachers College, and later in Moscow from 1923–1925 at the studio of D.N. Kardovsky. From 1925–1931, he studied at the studio of V.N. Yakovlev. At the same time, from 1925, he began to do restoration work under the guidance of I.E. Grabar. He restored 11th century frescos in Kiev, murals in the cathedrals and tower-chambers of the Moscow Kremlin, and also performed the difficult work of transferring a Vrubel mural painting to canvas. Plekhanov painted landscapes, portraits and genre works that were distinguished by a refined style of painting.

Works
Winter - 1935, oil on canvas, Samara Art Museum

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in St. Petersburg in 1844. Died at the country estate of Borok (now Polenovo, Tula region) in 1927. Polenov took his first drawing lessons from P.P. Chistyakov and later studied at St. Petersburg University and the Academy of Arts simultaneously. After that, the Academy sent him on a pensioner’s trip to Europe. He worked in France, Italy and Germany. Upon his return, he was bestowed the title of Academician for his paintings on French history. While in France and working with Repin en plein air, Polenov began to paint landscape sketches. In 1876, he fought in the Balkan war as a volunteer, and in 1877 published Diary of a Russian Volunteer, which he illustrated himself. The year 1878 was a landmark one for the artist: he moved to Moscow and became a member of the Association of Traveling Art Exhibitions. From that time, he actively participated in the work of the Abramtsevo Circle. In 1878, Polenov created his most renowned painting A Moscow Yard that determined his transition to open-air landscape painting. However, he did not abandon the historical theme altogether. After traveling across the Near East in 1881–1882, the artist executed a large painting Christ an Read More
Born in St. Petersburg in 1844. Died at the country estate of Borok (now Polenovo, Tula region) in 1927. Polenov took his first drawing lessons from P.P. Chistyakov and later studied at St. Petersburg University and the Academy of Arts simultaneously. After that, the Academy sent him on a pensioner’s trip to Europe. He worked in France, Italy and Germany. Upon his return, he was bestowed the title of Academician for his paintings on French history. While in France and working with Repin en plein air, Polenov began to paint landscape sketches. In 1876, he fought in the Balkan war as a volunteer, and in 1877 published Diary of a Russian Volunteer, which he illustrated himself. The year 1878 was a landmark one for the artist: he moved to Moscow and became a member of the Association of Traveling Art Exhibitions. From that time, he actively participated in the work of the Abramtsevo Circle. In 1878, Polenov created his most renowned painting A Moscow Yard that determined his transition to open-air landscape painting. However, he did not abandon the historical theme altogether. After traveling across the Near East in 1881–1882, the artist executed a large painting Christ and the Sinner and a series of paintings From the Life of Christ. During 1882–1895, as the instructor of the landscape class at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, he became the teacher of K.A. Korovin, I.I. Levitan and S.A. Vinogradov. In 1890, Polenov acquired the country estate of Borok, and built a house, studio and church there, which he designed himself. After his death, the house was turned into a museum.

Works
A Moscow Yard - 1878, oil on canvas. State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow
Klyazma River, Zhukovka - 1887, oil on canvas. Nizhny Novgorod State Museum of Art
On Tiberias (Genisaret) Lake - 1888, oil on canvas. State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives

The learner will:
  • Become familiar with some of the best known landscape painters in Canada and Russia (1860-1940)
  • Relate the experiences of landscape painters, their geography, and their era, to the style and elements in their work
  • Compare the life experiences of landscape painters in Russia and Canada working during the period 1860-1940

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