Born in Toronto, Ontario in 1862. Died in the same city in 1926. William Atkinson RCA, studied at the Ontario School of Art (1880–1883) with John Arthur Fraser and Robert Harris, after which he then travelled to Philadelphia, where he took courses with Thomas Eakins, and then to Paris where he took courses at the Julian Academy with Bouguereau and Ferrier, as well as at the Delance Academy. He was a member of the Ontario Society of Artists from 1892 to 1907, and then of the Canadian Art Club from 1907 to 1915. His work is in the academic tradition. After initially being influenced by European painting, his work gradually came to express the Canadian viewpoint. Although he painted in Ontario in the late 19th century, in addition to Île d’Orléans and Pointe-au-Pic (Charlevoix), he spent most of his life working in his Toronto studio.

Works
Moonlight over Polder - 1906, watercolour on paper. Art Gallery of Hamilton
Born in Toronto, Ontario in 1862. Died in the same city in 1926. William Atkinson RCA, studied at the Ontario School of Art (1880–1883) with John Arthur Fraser and Robert Harris, after which he then travelled to Philadelphia, where he took courses with Thomas Eakins, and then to Paris where he took courses at the Julian Academy with Bouguereau and Ferrier, as well as at the Delance Academy. He was a member of the Ontario Society of Artists from 1892 to 1907, and then of the Canadian Art Club from 1907 to 1915. His work is in the academic tradition. After initially being influenced by European painting, his work gradually came to express the Canadian viewpoint. Although he painted in Ontario in the late 19th century, in addition to Île d’Orléans and Pointe-au-Pic (Charlevoix), he spent most of his life working in his Toronto studio.

Works
Moonlight over Polder - 1906, watercolour on paper. Art Gallery of Hamilton

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1855. Died in England in 1940. Frances M. Jones Bannerman, the daughter of the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, A.G. Jones, took private courses with Forshaw Day. She worked for a while in Nova Scotia and then married British painter Hamlet Bannerman. She continued her career as a painter in England, where she moved after being married.

Works
Edge of the Woods - no date, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia
Born in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1855. Died in England in 1940. Frances M. Jones Bannerman, the daughter of the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, A.G. Jones, took private courses with Forshaw Day. She worked for a while in Nova Scotia and then married British painter Hamlet Bannerman. She continued her career as a painter in England, where she moved after being married.

Works
Edge of the Woods - no date, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in West Flamboro, Ontario in 1861. Died in Verdun, Quebec in 1929. Barnsley, a native of Ontario, studied at the St. Louis School of Fine Arts in Missouri between 1879 and 1882. His mother decided to move to St. Louis in 1875 after his father’s death and a fire that destroyed the family business. In 1882, he went to Paris, where he lived for five years. He was moderately successful there and won many prizes for his works. After returning to Canada, he was hospitalized in 1892 because of mental health problems. He became institutionalized frequently from this point onward. His painting (oil and watercolour) was rediscovered long after his death in 1929. He is mainly recognized for his seascapes, which were clearly influenced by Eugène Boudin.

Works
Landscape, France - 1886, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Hamilton
Born in West Flamboro, Ontario in 1861. Died in Verdun, Quebec in 1929. Barnsley, a native of Ontario, studied at the St. Louis School of Fine Arts in Missouri between 1879 and 1882. His mother decided to move to St. Louis in 1875 after his father’s death and a fire that destroyed the family business. In 1882, he went to Paris, where he lived for five years. He was moderately successful there and won many prizes for his works. After returning to Canada, he was hospitalized in 1892 because of mental health problems. He became institutionalized frequently from this point onward. His painting (oil and watercolour) was rediscovered long after his death in 1929. He is mainly recognized for his seascapes, which were clearly influenced by Eugène Boudin.

Works
Landscape, France - 1886, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Hamilton

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in London, England in 1846. Died in Montréal, Quebec in 1923. Frederic Marlett Bell-Smith RCA, the eldest son of miniaturist painter John Bell-Smith, who was his first teacher, took courses at the South Kensington School of Art. His family emigrated to Montréal in 1866 and Frederic joined them the following year. He began working for photographer James Inglis, retouching and colouring photographs. In 1867, he became a member of the Society of Canadian Artists, which was founded by his father in that year. In 1871, he moved to Hamilton and became a member of the Ontario Society of Artists in 1872. In the late 1870s, he began a career in teaching: Ontario School of Art (1877–1878), Alma College in St. Thomas, Ontario (1881–1890 and 1897–1910). His sketches in Quebec of rocky Canadian landscapes and his street scenes of London and Paris were a hit with the public.

Works
Above Lake Louise - circa 1910, oil on canvas. Edmonton Art Gallery
Born in London, England in 1846. Died in Montréal, Quebec in 1923. Frederic Marlett Bell-Smith RCA, the eldest son of miniaturist painter John Bell-Smith, who was his first teacher, took courses at the South Kensington School of Art. His family emigrated to Montréal in 1866 and Frederic joined them the following year. He began working for photographer James Inglis, retouching and colouring photographs. In 1867, he became a member of the Society of Canadian Artists, which was founded by his father in that year. In 1871, he moved to Hamilton and became a member of the Ontario Society of Artists in 1872. In the late 1870s, he began a career in teaching: Ontario School of Art (1877–1878), Alma College in St. Thomas, Ontario (1881–1890 and 1897–1910). His sketches in Quebec of rocky Canadian landscapes and his street scenes of London and Paris were a hit with the public.

Works
Above Lake Louise - circa 1910, oil on canvas. Edmonton Art Gallery

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Antigonish, Nova Scotia in 1900. Died in the same town in 1965. When she was nine, Marion Bond began to study drawing and watercolour. A few years later, she entered the Nova Scotia College of Art and then spent two summers at the Art Students’ League in New York before studying at the Columbia University Teacher’s College, where she earned a master of arts degree. Her work was influenced by many artists, like Stanley Royle, George Bridgman and Raymond Neilson, in addition to Marjorie Tozer, with whom she drew. In addition to some of her abstract work, Marion Bond is known for her realistic portraits and landscapes.

Works
Grain Elevators, Halifax - circa 1930. oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia
Born in Antigonish, Nova Scotia in 1900. Died in the same town in 1965. When she was nine, Marion Bond began to study drawing and watercolour. A few years later, she entered the Nova Scotia College of Art and then spent two summers at the Art Students’ League in New York before studying at the Columbia University Teacher’s College, where she earned a master of arts degree. Her work was influenced by many artists, like Stanley Royle, George Bridgman and Raymond Neilson, in addition to Marjorie Tozer, with whom she drew. In addition to some of her abstract work, Marion Bond is known for her realistic portraits and landscapes.

Works
Grain Elevators, Halifax - circa 1930. oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Hamilton, Ontario in 1859. Died in Stockholm, Sweden in 1906. William Blair Bruce, who was trained at the Hamilton Mechanics Institute (1877) began working for an architectural firm (1878–1880). In 1881, he left for Paris, where he decided to devote himself to painting. He studied at the Julian Academy with Fleury and Bouguereau (1881–1882). He spent time with a colony of English and American artists in the village of Barbizon and was influenced by impressionism. He met Swedish sculptor Karoline Benedicks and married her in 1888. From that time onward, they spent their summers in Sweden and their winters in France. They founded a small artists colony on Gotland Island to the south-east of Stockholm in the Baltic Sea. After his death, a number of his works were given to the future Art Gallery of Hamilton.

Works
Giverny, France - 1887. oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Hamilton.
Born in Hamilton, Ontario in 1859. Died in Stockholm, Sweden in 1906. William Blair Bruce, who was trained at the Hamilton Mechanics Institute (1877) began working for an architectural firm (1878–1880). In 1881, he left for Paris, where he decided to devote himself to painting. He studied at the Julian Academy with Fleury and Bouguereau (1881–1882). He spent time with a colony of English and American artists in the village of Barbizon and was influenced by impressionism. He met Swedish sculptor Karoline Benedicks and married her in 1888. From that time onward, they spent their summers in Sweden and their winters in France. They founded a small artists colony on Gotland Island to the south-east of Stockholm in the Baltic Sea. After his death, a number of his works were given to the future Art Gallery of Hamilton.

Works
Giverny, France - 1887. oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Hamilton.

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Greenock, Scotland in 1855. Died in Wallasey, Cheshire in 1925. Following his schooling in Richmond, Quebec, and at the Conseil des arts et manufactures in Montréal, William Brymner RCA focused on architecture. When he went to Paris in 1878, it was to take further courses in architecture. However, once there, he decided to devote himself to painting. In 1886, he taught painting at the Art Association of Montreal. Brymner, who is admired for the delicacy of his art, painted portraits and interiors in a figurative style, in addition to murals and watercolours on silk. He is considered the first great teacher of painting in Canada, and is admired for his respect for academic training and his great receptiveness to the talents of others. He had the admiration of his students and would become a major influence on the development of Canadian painting.

Works
A Summer Morning - 1888, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Hamilton
Read More
Born in Greenock, Scotland in 1855. Died in Wallasey, Cheshire in 1925. Following his schooling in Richmond, Quebec, and at the Conseil des arts et manufactures in Montréal, William Brymner RCA focused on architecture. When he went to Paris in 1878, it was to take further courses in architecture. However, once there, he decided to devote himself to painting. In 1886, he taught painting at the Art Association of Montreal. Brymner, who is admired for the delicacy of his art, painted portraits and interiors in a figurative style, in addition to murals and watercolours on silk. He is considered the first great teacher of painting in Canada, and is admired for his respect for academic training and his great receptiveness to the talents of others. He had the admiration of his students and would become a major influence on the development of Canadian painting.

Works
A Summer Morning - 1888, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Hamilton
The Ravine in Summer - circa 1900, oil on linen. Edmonton Art Gallery

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Orillia, Ontario in 1890. Died in Toronto, Ontario in 1945. Franklin Carmichael RCA, whose parents were Scottish, grew up in Orillia, Ontario. In 1911, he entered the Ontario College of Art in Toronto, where he studied with William Cruickshank and George Reid. At the Toronto Technical School, he studied with Gustav Hahn. Also in 1911, he apprenticed as a commercial artist with the Grip Ltd. advertising agency in Toronto, where he met Tom Thomson, Arthur Lismer, J. E. H. MacDonald and Frederick Varley. He then studied in Antwerp in 1913–1914, and after returning to Canada, worked as a designer while continuing to paint watercolours and oils of Northern Ontario landscapes. Carmichael, a founding member of the Group of Seven, was president of the group from 1932 to 1934. He taught at the Ontario College of Art from 1932 to 1945, but continued to paint oil and watercolour landscapes. His preferred landscapes were those of the Ottawa Valley and the shores of Lake Superior, which he visited several times with Alfred J. Casson and Lawren Harris.

Works
Read More
Born in Orillia, Ontario in 1890. Died in Toronto, Ontario in 1945. Franklin Carmichael RCA, whose parents were Scottish, grew up in Orillia, Ontario. In 1911, he entered the Ontario College of Art in Toronto, where he studied with William Cruickshank and George Reid. At the Toronto Technical School, he studied with Gustav Hahn. Also in 1911, he apprenticed as a commercial artist with the Grip Ltd. advertising agency in Toronto, where he met Tom Thomson, Arthur Lismer, J. E. H. MacDonald and Frederick Varley. He then studied in Antwerp in 1913–1914, and after returning to Canada, worked as a designer while continuing to paint watercolours and oils of Northern Ontario landscapes. Carmichael, a founding member of the Group of Seven, was president of the group from 1932 to 1934. He taught at the Ontario College of Art from 1932 to 1945, but continued to paint oil and watercolour landscapes. His preferred landscapes were those of the Ottawa Valley and the shores of Lake Superior, which he visited several times with Alfred J. Casson and Lawren Harris.

Works
The Valley - 1921, oil on canvas. Edmonton Art Gallery
North Shore, Lake Superior - 1927, oil on canvas. The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Victoria, British Columbia in 1871. Died in the same city in 1945. In 1891, Emily Carr studied art at the California School of Design in San Francisco. After returning to Victoria in 1894, she opened her own studio and taught children. She made her first study trip to England in 1899. After studying in France in 1910, she adopted a Post-Impressionist style, but her art was not well received in Canada. In 1913, she began to paint Indian sites on the Pacific Coast, including typical Indian villages, houses and totem poles. She also showed an interest in the forest landscapes and sky of the British Columbia coast. In 1932, she became a member of the Canadian Group of Painters, and her work began to attract more attention in the years that followed. After 1932, she gave up Indian themes and her work focused on nature, which she began to paint in an increasingly expressionistic style. When she was 67, she had her first solo exhibition at the Vancouver Art Gallery. After experiencing various heart problems in 1937, Emily Carr gradually gave up painting to devote herself to writing novels.

Works
Read More
Born in Victoria, British Columbia in 1871. Died in the same city in 1945. In 1891, Emily Carr studied art at the California School of Design in San Francisco. After returning to Victoria in 1894, she opened her own studio and taught children. She made her first study trip to England in 1899. After studying in France in 1910, she adopted a Post-Impressionist style, but her art was not well received in Canada. In 1913, she began to paint Indian sites on the Pacific Coast, including typical Indian villages, houses and totem poles. She also showed an interest in the forest landscapes and sky of the British Columbia coast. In 1932, she became a member of the Canadian Group of Painters, and her work began to attract more attention in the years that followed. After 1932, she gave up Indian themes and her work focused on nature, which she began to paint in an increasingly expressionistic style. When she was 67, she had her first solo exhibition at the Vancouver Art Gallery. After experiencing various heart problems in 1937, Emily Carr gradually gave up painting to devote herself to writing novels.

Works
Yan, Q.C.I - 1912, oil on cavnas. Art Gallery of Hamilton
Indian War Canoe - 1912, oil on cavnas. The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
Sunshine and Tumult - circa 1938, oil on cavnas. Art Gallery of Hamilton

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Toronto, Ontario in 1898. Died in the same city in 1992. After his studies at the Hamilton Technical School, Alfred Casson RCA became an apprentice at a lithography company, where he retouched photographs. He took evening courses at the Toronto Central Technical School and in 1919, became Franklin Carmichael’s assistant at a Toronto firm of applied arts. In 1921, he made his first trip with Carmichael to paint in the Muskoka region. Two years later, the National Gallery of Canada purchased one of his paintings for the first time. In 1926, he was invited by members of the Group of Seven to replace Franz Johnston (who had not exhibited with the group after the initial 1920 exhibition). Casson, who painted many canvasses depicting Northern Ontario landscapes and villages, was the recipient of numerous awards and prizes.

Works
Coldwell, Lake Superior Read More
Born in Toronto, Ontario in 1898. Died in the same city in 1992. After his studies at the Hamilton Technical School, Alfred Casson RCA became an apprentice at a lithography company, where he retouched photographs. He took evening courses at the Toronto Central Technical School and in 1919, became Franklin Carmichael’s assistant at a Toronto firm of applied arts. In 1921, he made his first trip with Carmichael to paint in the Muskoka region. Two years later, the National Gallery of Canada purchased one of his paintings for the first time. In 1926, he was invited by members of the Group of Seven to replace Franz Johnston (who had not exhibited with the group after the initial 1920 exhibition). Casson, who painted many canvasses depicting Northern Ontario landscapes and villages, was the recipient of numerous awards and prizes.

Works
Coldwell, Lake Superior - 1928. oil on masonite. Edmonton Art Gallery

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Lanvéoc, France in 1865. Died in Meadowvale, Ontario in 1944. Georges Chavignaud, who was born in Brittany, studied engraving in Paris and painting in Brussels and Antwerp. In the early 1880s, he showed his admiration for Impressionism. He moved to Toronto in 1884 and remained there until 1902. After returning from a trip to Europe in 1904, he moved to Halifax, Nova Scotia. In 1912, he became a founding member in Toronto of the short-lived Associated Watercolour Painters. His conservative streak and his hostility to the work of the Group of Seven painters led to his resigning in protest from the Ontario Society of Artists. Landscape was his preferred form. Although he worked mainly in watercolours, he painted some oils towards the end of his life.

Works
Hillsiade Acadian Village - 1917, watercolour on paper. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia
Born in Lanvéoc, France in 1865. Died in Meadowvale, Ontario in 1944. Georges Chavignaud, who was born in Brittany, studied engraving in Paris and painting in Brussels and Antwerp. In the early 1880s, he showed his admiration for Impressionism. He moved to Toronto in 1884 and remained there until 1902. After returning from a trip to Europe in 1904, he moved to Halifax, Nova Scotia. In 1912, he became a founding member in Toronto of the short-lived Associated Watercolour Painters. His conservative streak and his hostility to the work of the Group of Seven painters led to his resigning in protest from the Ontario Society of Artists. Landscape was his preferred form. Although he worked mainly in watercolours, he painted some oils towards the end of his life.

Works
Hillsiade Acadian Village - 1917, watercolour on paper. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Upper Melbourne, Quebec in 1871. Died in the same village in 1960. In 1887–1888, Frederick Simpson Coburn RCA studied at the Conseil des arts et manufactures in Montreal. The following year, he went to Germany, where he enrolled at the Berlin Academy. In 1892, he was to be found in Paris taking courses at the École des Beaux-Arts in Gérôme’s studio. In the years that followed, Coburn travelled a great deal in Europe. His drawings appeared regularly in American magazines, and he illustrated many works by American, English and Canadian authors for G.P. Putman Publishing of New York. In the 1910s, he quickly developed a reputation for his winter landscapes, and his level of success was unprecedented for a Canadian artist.

Works
Winter Landscape - 1921, oil on canvas. Musée des beaux-arts de Sherbrooke
Read More
Born in Upper Melbourne, Quebec in 1871. Died in the same village in 1960. In 1887–1888, Frederick Simpson Coburn RCA studied at the Conseil des arts et manufactures in Montreal. The following year, he went to Germany, where he enrolled at the Berlin Academy. In 1892, he was to be found in Paris taking courses at the École des Beaux-Arts in Gérôme’s studio. In the years that followed, Coburn travelled a great deal in Europe. His drawings appeared regularly in American magazines, and he illustrated many works by American, English and Canadian authors for G.P. Putman Publishing of New York. In the 1910s, he quickly developed a reputation for his winter landscapes, and his level of success was unprecedented for a Canadian artist.

Works
Winter Landscape - 1921, oil on canvas. Musée des beaux-arts de Sherbrooke
Bright Winter Afternoon - 1927, oil on canvas. Edmonton Art Gallery

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Hamilton, Ontario in 1890. Died in St. Catharines, Ontario in 1986. Coombs studied painting in Gananoque, near Kingston, and then took courses at the Ontario College of Art in Toronto (1913–1918), where she became an assistant instructor in 1920. She continued her training at the New York School of Fine & Applied Arts in 1929 and after returning to Toronto, resumed her work as a professor at the Ontario College of Art. Her painting was greatly influenced by the Group of Seven. Her most original works were without a doubt her still lifes of flowers. Coombs worked with a variety of artist’s materials such as oil, watercolour, pastel, charcoal, pencil and ink. She also completed a number of murals and lithographs.

Works
Fire Swept - 1930s, oil on masonite. Art Gallery of Hamilton
Born in Hamilton, Ontario in 1890. Died in St. Catharines, Ontario in 1986. Coombs studied painting in Gananoque, near Kingston, and then took courses at the Ontario College of Art in Toronto (1913–1918), where she became an assistant instructor in 1920. She continued her training at the New York School of Fine & Applied Arts in 1929 and after returning to Toronto, resumed her work as a professor at the Ontario College of Art. Her painting was greatly influenced by the Group of Seven. Her most original works were without a doubt her still lifes of flowers. Coombs worked with a variety of artist’s materials such as oil, watercolour, pastel, charcoal, pencil and ink. She also completed a number of murals and lithographs.

Works
Fire Swept - 1930s, oil on masonite. Art Gallery of Hamilton

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland in 1866. Died in Chambly, Quebec in 1934. The family of Maurice Cullen RCA moved to Montreal in 1870. He initially studied at the Conseil des arts et manufactures de Montréal, but Cullen dreamed of becoming a sculptor. In 1887, he went to Paris to study sculpture at the École des Beaux Arts, where his discovery of Monet and Impressionism drew him to painting. Until 1895, he studied, worked and travelled in Europe. After returning to Montréal, Cullen painted winter scenes, primarily in the Québec area. He would sketch outdoors, and then paint the finished canvases in his studio, adapting the techniques of Impressionism to the particular features of the Quebec landscape. He had a profound influence on the artists of his era, particularly Suzor-Coté, who had a studio in the same building as Cullen.

Works
Logging in Winter, Beaupré - 1896, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Hamilton
Read More
Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland in 1866. Died in Chambly, Quebec in 1934. The family of Maurice Cullen RCA moved to Montreal in 1870. He initially studied at the Conseil des arts et manufactures de Montréal, but Cullen dreamed of becoming a sculptor. In 1887, he went to Paris to study sculpture at the École des Beaux Arts, where his discovery of Monet and Impressionism drew him to painting. Until 1895, he studied, worked and travelled in Europe. After returning to Montréal, Cullen painted winter scenes, primarily in the Québec area. He would sketch outdoors, and then paint the finished canvases in his studio, adapting the techniques of Impressionism to the particular features of the Quebec landscape. He had a profound influence on the artists of his era, particularly Suzor-Coté, who had a studio in the same building as Cullen.

Works
Logging in Winter, Beaupré - 1896, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Hamilton
Paris, Winter on the Seine - 1902, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Hamilton
Cape Diamond - 1909, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Hamilton
The Blizzard, Craig Street, Montreal - 1912, oil on canvas. Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec
Petty Harbour, Newfoundland - circa 1912, oil on canvas. Edmonton Art Gallery

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives

The learner will:
  • Become familiar with some of the best known landscape painters in Canada and Russia (1860-1940)
  • Relate the experiences of landscape painters, their geography, and their era, to the style and elements in their work
  • Compare the life experiences of landscape painters in Russia and Canada working during the period 1860-1940

Teachers' Centre Home Page | Find Learning Resources & Lesson Plans