Born in Brantford, Ontario in 1885. Died in Vancouver, British Columbia in 1970. From his early youth, Lawren Harris showed a keen interest in drawing. When he was 18, he left for Berlin, where he studied art for four years. He then travelled to the Middle East (Palestine and Arabia). After returning to Toronto in 1910, he met J.E.H. MacDonald and the other members of the future Group of Seven. From 1917 to 1922, he could be found every autumn in Algoma and around Lake Superior. From 1924 on, he worked in the Rockies and, beginning in 1930, in the Arctic. Gradually, his art became increasingly abstract and he became the leader of the Transcendental Group of Painters in 1939. His belief in theosophy is linked to his shift towards non-figurative art. Unlike the other members of the Group of Seven, Harris came from a well-to-do family and could work as a painter full time without worrying about material matters.

Works
Canyon V, Algoma Sketch XCVI - circa 1920, oil on board, pressed wood. Edmonton Art Gallery
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Born in Brantford, Ontario in 1885. Died in Vancouver, British Columbia in 1970. From his early youth, Lawren Harris showed a keen interest in drawing. When he was 18, he left for Berlin, where he studied art for four years. He then travelled to the Middle East (Palestine and Arabia). After returning to Toronto in 1910, he met J.E.H. MacDonald and the other members of the future Group of Seven. From 1917 to 1922, he could be found every autumn in Algoma and around Lake Superior. From 1924 on, he worked in the Rockies and, beginning in 1930, in the Arctic. Gradually, his art became increasingly abstract and he became the leader of the Transcendental Group of Painters in 1939. His belief in theosophy is linked to his shift towards non-figurative art. Unlike the other members of the Group of Seven, Harris came from a well-to-do family and could work as a painter full time without worrying about material matters.

Works
Canyon V, Algoma Sketch XCVI - circa 1920, oil on board, pressed wood. Edmonton Art Gallery
Joe Lake, Algonquin Park, Ontario - 1920s, oil on board. Art Gallery of Hamilton
Morning, Lake Superior - circa 1921, oil on canvas. The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
Athabasca Valley, Jasper Park - 1924, oil on panel. Edmonton Art Gallery
Lake Superior Sketch - circa 1927, oil on panel. Edmonton Art Gallery
Icebergs and Mountains, Greenland - 1932, oil on panel. Art Gallery of Hamilton

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Born in Vale of Conway, Wales, 1849. Died in Montréal, Quebec in 1919. The family of Robert Harris RCA immigrated to Prince Edward Island in 1856. As an amateur painter, he studied in Boston (1873–1874) with Rimmer and Dewing. He made a trip to Europe, during which he copied paintings by old masters. In 1877, he studied in London, and the following year in Paris with Léon Bonnat. Harris travelled a great deal in Europe and North America. He worked as an illustrator for publishers in Boston, Halifax, Montreal and Toronto. However, it was as a portrait painter that he made his reputation. He was a founding member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts in 1880 and was president from 1893 to 1905.

Works
From the Riva degli Schiavoni, Venice - 1906. oil on panel. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia
Herbert River, Rawdon, N.S. - no date, oil on board. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia.
Born in Vale of Conway, Wales, 1849. Died in Montréal, Quebec in 1919. The family of Robert Harris RCA immigrated to Prince Edward Island in 1856. As an amateur painter, he studied in Boston (1873–1874) with Rimmer and Dewing. He made a trip to Europe, during which he copied paintings by old masters. In 1877, he studied in London, and the following year in Paris with Léon Bonnat. Harris travelled a great deal in Europe and North America. He worked as an illustrator for publishers in Boston, Halifax, Montreal and Toronto. However, it was as a portrait painter that he made his reputation. He was a founding member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts in 1880 and was president from 1893 to 1905.

Works
From the Riva degli Schiavoni, Venice - 1906. oil on panel. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia
Herbert River, Rawdon, N.S. - no date, oil on board. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia.

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Torquay, England in 1846. Died in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1910. George Harvey RCA came to Halifax in 1881, the year that city hosted the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts exhibition, in which he showed a number of his works. His oil and watercolour landscapes reveal his attachment to the British academic tradition. Harvey, who was a respected artist, became the new director of the Victoria School of Art in 1887, a position he held until 1894.

Works
Welsh Courtyard - 1875, huile sur canvas. Art Gallery Nova Scotia.
Born in Torquay, England in 1846. Died in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1910. George Harvey RCA came to Halifax in 1881, the year that city hosted the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts exhibition, in which he showed a number of his works. His oil and watercolour landscapes reveal his attachment to the British academic tradition. Harvey, who was a respected artist, became the new director of the Victoria School of Art in 1887, a position he held until 1894.

Works
Welsh Courtyard - 1875, huile sur canvas. Art Gallery Nova Scotia.

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Paris, France in 1890. Died in Montréal, Quebec in 1967. Adrien Hébert RCA was born in Paris in 1890 during a trip there by his parents. His father, Louis-Philippe, supervised the casting of bronzes to decorate the façade of the Quebec Parliament. In 1904, Adrien was accepted at the Monument National, where he studied under Joseph Saint-Charles, Edmond Dyonnet, Joseph Franchère and Jobson Paradis. He continued his studies from 1907 onward with William Brymner at the Art Association of Montreal, where he remained until 1911. He became an associate member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts in 1932, and four years later was awarded the Jessie Dow Prize, which he won again in 1939. In his many articles, the aesthetic defended by Adrien Hébert was resolutely modernist. In the 1920s, he began to paint scenes from the city of Montréal, believing that technological progress would promote social change.

Works
Montreal Harbour - 1924, Read More
Born in Paris, France in 1890. Died in Montréal, Quebec in 1967. Adrien Hébert RCA was born in Paris in 1890 during a trip there by his parents. His father, Louis-Philippe, supervised the casting of bronzes to decorate the façade of the Quebec Parliament. In 1904, Adrien was accepted at the Monument National, where he studied under Joseph Saint-Charles, Edmond Dyonnet, Joseph Franchère and Jobson Paradis. He continued his studies from 1907 onward with William Brymner at the Art Association of Montreal, where he remained until 1911. He became an associate member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts in 1932, and four years later was awarded the Jessie Dow Prize, which he won again in 1939. In his many articles, the aesthetic defended by Adrien Hébert was resolutely modernist. In the 1920s, he began to paint scenes from the city of Montréal, believing that technological progress would promote social change.

Works
Montreal Harbour - 1924, oil on canvas. Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec
Montreal Harbour - 1925, oil on canvas. The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
Canadian Shipbuilding - 1926, oil on canvas. Musée des beaux-arts de Sherbrooke
Rue Saint-Denis - 1927, oil on canvas. Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Allandale, Ontario in 1892. Died in Montréal, Quebec in 1977. Edwin Holgate RCA, “the eighth member of the Group of Seven,” was well known for his landscapes and his female nudes in landscapes, although he was an excellent portrait artist as well. Holgate’s family moved to Montréal in 1901, where as an adolescent he took art classes at the School of the Art Association of Montreal. He studied in Paris from 1912 to 1914, and again in 1920–1921. He was impressed by the revival of wood engraving in Europe and began to make prints in the early 1920s. He was described as the leading modern Canadian engraver. In the early 1920s, he was one of the founders of the Beaver Hall Group, a group of Montréal artists. Holgate fought in both world wars, working as a war artist during the Second World War. He moved in Francophone literary and artistic circles. From 1928 to 1934, he taught at the Montreal School of Fine Arts, and from 1938 to 1940, at the Art Association of Montreal. In 1946, he moved from Montréal to Morin Heights in the Laurentians.

Works
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Born in Allandale, Ontario in 1892. Died in Montréal, Quebec in 1977. Edwin Holgate RCA, “the eighth member of the Group of Seven,” was well known for his landscapes and his female nudes in landscapes, although he was an excellent portrait artist as well. Holgate’s family moved to Montréal in 1901, where as an adolescent he took art classes at the School of the Art Association of Montreal. He studied in Paris from 1912 to 1914, and again in 1920–1921. He was impressed by the revival of wood engraving in Europe and began to make prints in the early 1920s. He was described as the leading modern Canadian engraver. In the early 1920s, he was one of the founders of the Beaver Hall Group, a group of Montréal artists. Holgate fought in both world wars, working as a war artist during the Second World War. He moved in Francophone literary and artistic circles. From 1928 to 1934, he taught at the Montreal School of Fine Arts, and from 1938 to 1940, at the Art Association of Montreal. In 1946, he moved from Montréal to Morin Heights in the Laurentians.

Works
Indian Grave Houses, Skeena River - 1926, oil on panel. The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Toronto, Ontario in 1898. Died in the same city in 1996. Yvonne McKague Housser RCA studied at the Ontario College of Art in Toronto before going to Paris, where she enrolled in the Grande Chaumière Academy. She took courses with Antoine Bourdelle and also worked at the Colarossi Academy. In 1924, she was at the Ranson Academy, where she studied with Maurice Denis. After returning to Canada the following year, she taught for 20 years at the Ontario College of Art with Arthur Lismer and Frederick Varley. In 1935, she married Fred Housser, an art critic and editorial writer for the Toronto Daily Star. She also taught at Ryerson Institute, and later at the Doon School of Fine Arts, until 1949. Housser’s art was influenced by the Group of Seven, but her subjects are different given her fascination with the bleak mining regions of Northern Ontario.

Works
Grange Park, Toronto - between 1925 and 1930 - oil on canvas. Musée national des beaux-arts du Qu&eac Read More
Born in Toronto, Ontario in 1898. Died in the same city in 1996. Yvonne McKague Housser RCA studied at the Ontario College of Art in Toronto before going to Paris, where she enrolled in the Grande Chaumière Academy. She took courses with Antoine Bourdelle and also worked at the Colarossi Academy. In 1924, she was at the Ranson Academy, where she studied with Maurice Denis. After returning to Canada the following year, she taught for 20 years at the Ontario College of Art with Arthur Lismer and Frederick Varley. In 1935, she married Fred Housser, an art critic and editorial writer for the Toronto Daily Star. She also taught at Ryerson Institute, and later at the Doon School of Fine Arts, until 1949. Housser’s art was influenced by the Group of Seven, but her subjects are different given her fascination with the bleak mining regions of Northern Ontario.

Works
Grange Park, Toronto - between 1925 and 1930 - oil on canvas. Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Montréal, Quebec in 1882. Died in Kleinburg, Ontario in 1974. A. Y. Jackson RCA studied at the Conseil des arts et manufactures in Montréal with Edmond Dyonnet. In 1906 and 1907, he worked as a graphic artist for a lithograph company in Chicago. He fought in the First World War in 1914 but after being injured in 1916, became a war artist the following year. In 1920, after a stay at Georgian Bay, Jackson exhibited in the first Group of Seven exhibition after joining the group. That same year, he was elected a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts. Jackson’s travels to Quebec included trips to the Charlevoix and Lower St. Lawrence region, and he also travelled across Canada to remote areas. Jackson, who was prolific in terms of his drawings and sketches, painted almost until the day he died.

Works
Autumn, Lake Superior - circa 1922, oil on panel. Edmonton Art Gallery
Rocher de Boule - 1926, oil o Read More
Born in Montréal, Quebec in 1882. Died in Kleinburg, Ontario in 1974. A. Y. Jackson RCA studied at the Conseil des arts et manufactures in Montréal with Edmond Dyonnet. In 1906 and 1907, he worked as a graphic artist for a lithograph company in Chicago. He fought in the First World War in 1914 but after being injured in 1916, became a war artist the following year. In 1920, after a stay at Georgian Bay, Jackson exhibited in the first Group of Seven exhibition after joining the group. That same year, he was elected a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts. Jackson’s travels to Quebec included trips to the Charlevoix and Lower St. Lawrence region, and he also travelled across Canada to remote areas. Jackson, who was prolific in terms of his drawings and sketches, painted almost until the day he died.

Works
Autumn, Lake Superior - circa 1922, oil on panel. Edmonton Art Gallery
Rocher de Boule - 1926, oil on panel. Edmonton Art Gallery
Hazel Tree Island - circa 1926, oil on canvas. Edmonton Art Gallery
Grey Day, St. Tite Des Caps - circa 1930, oil on panel. Edmonton Art Gallery
Lancaster Sound - 1930s, oil on board. Art Gallery of Hamilton
A Lake in Labrador - 1930, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Newfoundland and Labrador

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Königsberg, Western Prussia in 1812. Died in Ardoch, Dakota in 1901. Otto Jacobi RCA received his first art lessons in his native city of Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia). In 1830, he studied in Berlin (Königliche Akademie der Kunste). He then moved on to the Fine Arts Academy in Düsseldorf, where he studied under the painter Johann Wilkem Schirmer. Between 1840 and 1860, he worked in the court of a German prince in Wiesbaden (now Hesse). Jacobi emigrated to America around 1860. He settled in Montréal, where he forged ties with the local artistic milieu and with artists from abroad such as his fellow countrymen Adolph Vogt (1812–1871). Jacobi was a landscape painter who worked around Montréal, Québec, Ottawa and Kingston, and who mainly painted waterfalls. He briefly taught at the Ontario College of Art. He showed his works in the annual exhibitions of the Art Association of Montreal and the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts (1880–1898), of which he would become president in 1890. He returned to live with his brother in Ardoch, Dakota, where he died in 1901.

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Born in Königsberg, Western Prussia in 1812. Died in Ardoch, Dakota in 1901. Otto Jacobi RCA received his first art lessons in his native city of Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia). In 1830, he studied in Berlin (Königliche Akademie der Kunste). He then moved on to the Fine Arts Academy in Düsseldorf, where he studied under the painter Johann Wilkem Schirmer. Between 1840 and 1860, he worked in the court of a German prince in Wiesbaden (now Hesse). Jacobi emigrated to America around 1860. He settled in Montréal, where he forged ties with the local artistic milieu and with artists from abroad such as his fellow countrymen Adolph Vogt (1812–1871). Jacobi was a landscape painter who worked around Montréal, Québec, Ottawa and Kingston, and who mainly painted waterfalls. He briefly taught at the Ontario College of Art. He showed his works in the annual exhibitions of the Art Association of Montreal and the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts (1880–1898), of which he would become president in 1890. He returned to live with his brother in Ardoch, Dakota, where he died in 1901.

Works
Autumn on the St. Maurice River - 1862, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Hamilton
Canadian Autumn - 1870, oil on canvas. The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
The Falls at Sunset - 1886, oil on canvas. Edmonton Art Gallery

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Amsterdam, Netherlands in 1815. Died in Chicago, Illinois, United States in 1872. After being raised in Germany, Krieghoff left for the New World in 1837. When he arrived, he enlisted in the U.S. Army and fought the Seminole Indians in Florida. In 1840, he ended up in Canada, probably after deserting, and settled near Montréal. He moved to Québec in 1853. For approximately 11 years, he moved in the city’s bourgeois circles, who liked his genre paintings depicting the lives of French-Canadian peasants [habitants] and Indians. He left Québec at the end of 1863 to visit Paris and Munich. He returned in 1871, but his former patrons had returned to England. At the end of that year, he left for Chicago, where his daughter lived, and died suddenly in 1872. Krieghoff is best known for his “Canadian-style” transpositions of genre scenes and landscapes as they were painted in Germany and the Netherlands.

Works
Three Indians in Winter Scene Read More
Born in Amsterdam, Netherlands in 1815. Died in Chicago, Illinois, United States in 1872. After being raised in Germany, Krieghoff left for the New World in 1837. When he arrived, he enlisted in the U.S. Army and fought the Seminole Indians in Florida. In 1840, he ended up in Canada, probably after deserting, and settled near Montréal. He moved to Québec in 1853. For approximately 11 years, he moved in the city’s bourgeois circles, who liked his genre paintings depicting the lives of French-Canadian peasants [habitants] and Indians. He left Québec at the end of 1863 to visit Paris and Munich. He returned in 1871, but his former patrons had returned to England. At the end of that year, he left for Chicago, where his daughter lived, and died suddenly in 1872. Krieghoff is best known for his “Canadian-style” transpositions of genre scenes and landscapes as they were painted in Germany and the Netherlands.

Works
Three Indians in Winter Scene - no date, oil on canvas. The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
The Habitant’s Home - 1870, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Hamilton

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Montréal, Quebec in 1868. Died in the same city in 1915. Between 1887 and 1894, Ludger Larose studied drawing at the École des Beaux-arts in Paris with Jean-Paul Laurens and Gustave Moreau. After returning to Montreal in 1894, he taught at the École du Plateau until 1910, and then in Westmount from 1912 to 1915. Larose made his mark as a church decorator (the Sacré-Cœur Chapel at Notre-Dame Cathedral in Montréal) and as a landscape painter.

Work
Saint-Faustin - 1899, oil on canvas. Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec
Born in Montréal, Quebec in 1868. Died in the same city in 1915. Between 1887 and 1894, Ludger Larose studied drawing at the École des Beaux-arts in Paris with Jean-Paul Laurens and Gustave Moreau. After returning to Montreal in 1894, he taught at the École du Plateau until 1910, and then in Westmount from 1912 to 1915. Larose made his mark as a church decorator (the Sacré-Cœur Chapel at Notre-Dame Cathedral in Montréal) and as a landscape painter.

Work
Saint-Faustin - 1899, oil on canvas. Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1873. Died in Miami, Florida, United States in 1939. Ernest Lawson began to paint at the age of 16 when his family moved to Kansas City. In 1891, Lawson studied at the Arts Students’ League of New York with John N. Twatchman and J. Alden Weir. Two years later, he was in Paris taking courses at the Julian Academy. At the time, he shared a small apartment with the writer Somerset Maughan (who would later create a character by the name of Frederick Lawson who was an artist). He spent his summers at Martigues in the south of France, but also worked at Moret-sur-Loing, near Fontainebleau. In 1908, he was one of the exhibitors at the exhibition of the Group of Eight, a group of American artists.

Works
Castle in Segovia - 1916, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia
Summer Clouds, Halifax - 1924, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Nova Scot Read More
Born in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1873. Died in Miami, Florida, United States in 1939. Ernest Lawson began to paint at the age of 16 when his family moved to Kansas City. In 1891, Lawson studied at the Arts Students’ League of New York with John N. Twatchman and J. Alden Weir. Two years later, he was in Paris taking courses at the Julian Academy. At the time, he shared a small apartment with the writer Somerset Maughan (who would later create a character by the name of Frederick Lawson who was an artist). He spent his summers at Martigues in the south of France, but also worked at Moret-sur-Loing, near Fontainebleau. In 1908, he was one of the exhibitors at the exhibition of the Group of Eight, a group of American artists.

Works
Castle in Segovia - 1916, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia
Summer Clouds, Halifax - 1924, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Saint-Hilaire, Quebec in 1864. Died in Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec in 1955. Ozias Leduc RCA displayed an interest in art from the time he was very young. Around 1883, he worked for Carli, a Montréal manufacturer of statues. Adolphe Rho and Luigi Capello introduced him to the trade of mural painting. Leduc exhibited his work at the spring showing of the Art Association of Montreal for the first time in 1891. The following year, he won first prize in the under 30 category. After that, he devoted himself essentially to decorating churches and chapels. Leduc also painted landscapes, portraits and allegorical and historical paintings. He became interested in symbolism after a brief trip to London and Paris in 1897. Leduc, who kept himself apart from the artistic mainstream in Canada, also wrote poetry and some short articles about art.

Works
The Choquette Farm, Belœil - 1901, oil on canvas. Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec
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Born in Saint-Hilaire, Quebec in 1864. Died in Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec in 1955. Ozias Leduc RCA displayed an interest in art from the time he was very young. Around 1883, he worked for Carli, a Montréal manufacturer of statues. Adolphe Rho and Luigi Capello introduced him to the trade of mural painting. Leduc exhibited his work at the spring showing of the Art Association of Montreal for the first time in 1891. The following year, he won first prize in the under 30 category. After that, he devoted himself essentially to decorating churches and chapels. Leduc also painted landscapes, portraits and allegorical and historical paintings. He became interested in symbolism after a brief trip to London and Paris in 1897. Leduc, who kept himself apart from the artistic mainstream in Canada, also wrote poetry and some short articles about art.

Works
The Choquette Farm, Belœil - 1901, oil on canvas. Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec
Day’s End - 1913, oil on canvas. The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
Mauve Twilight - 1921, oil on paper, mounted on canvas. The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts

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Born in Sheffield, England in 1885. Died in Montréal, Quebec in 1969. Lismer, who was trained at the Sheffield School of Fine Arts in England from 1899 to 1906, and then at the Antwerp Royal Academy (1906–1907), immigrated to Canada in 1891 and looked for work as a commercial illustrator. He worked as a commercial artist for Toronto’s Grip Ltd. advertising agency, where he met J.E.H. MacDonald, Tom Thomson, Franz Johnston and Franklin Carmichael. He returned to England to be married and talked Frederick Varley into immigrating to Canada. Lismer became a professor at the Victoria School of Art and Design in Halifax (1916–1919). He returned to Toronto, where he was appointed associate director of the Ontario College of Art in 1919. He was a member of the Group of Seven, and from 1927 to 1938, was in charge of teaching at the Toronto Art Gallery. He gave a series of lectures in Europe and South Africa, where he taught in 1936 and 1937. From 1941 to 1967, he administered the Montreal Children’s Art Centre, which was affiliated with the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts.

Works
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Born in Sheffield, England in 1885. Died in Montréal, Quebec in 1969. Lismer, who was trained at the Sheffield School of Fine Arts in England from 1899 to 1906, and then at the Antwerp Royal Academy (1906–1907), immigrated to Canada in 1891 and looked for work as a commercial illustrator. He worked as a commercial artist for Toronto’s Grip Ltd. advertising agency, where he met J.E.H. MacDonald, Tom Thomson, Franz Johnston and Franklin Carmichael. He returned to England to be married and talked Frederick Varley into immigrating to Canada. Lismer became a professor at the Victoria School of Art and Design in Halifax (1916–1919). He returned to Toronto, where he was appointed associate director of the Ontario College of Art in 1919. He was a member of the Group of Seven, and from 1927 to 1938, was in charge of teaching at the Toronto Art Gallery. He gave a series of lectures in Europe and South Africa, where he taught in 1936 and 1937. From 1941 to 1967, he administered the Montreal Children’s Art Centre, which was affiliated with the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts.

Works
Sackville River - 1917, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia
Winter - 1920, oil on linen. Edmonton Art Gallery
Saint-Hilarion - 1925 or 1926, oil on canvas. Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec
The Glacier - 1928, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Hamilton
Little Haven, Nova Scotia - 1930, oil on canvas. Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives

The learner will:
  • Become familiar with some of the best known landscape painters in Canada and Russia (1860-1940)
  • Relate the experiences of landscape painters, their geography, and their era, to the style and elements in their work
  • Compare the life experiences of landscape painters in Russia and Canada working during the period 1860-1940

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