Born in Durham, England in 1873. Died in Toronto, Ontario in 1932. J.E.H MacDonald RCA came to Canada with his family in 1887. He studied art at the Hamilton Art School and the Central Ontario School of Art and Design in Toronto. He joined the Grip Ltd. advertising agency in 1895 as a commercial artist, where he met Tom Thomson and a few of the future members of the Group of Seven. He formed a friendship with Lawren Harris, with whom he made several trips to Algoma and Lake Superior. He was a member of the Group of Seven, and was appointed the principal of the Ontario College of Art in Toronto in 1929. He is considered one of Canada’s most important landscape painters.

Works
June Clouds - 1914, oil on linen. Edmonton Art Gallery
Atlantic Beach and Fog Bank Near Petite Riviere, Nova Scotia - 1922, oil on pulp board. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia
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Born in Durham, England in 1873. Died in Toronto, Ontario in 1932. J.E.H MacDonald RCA came to Canada with his family in 1887. He studied art at the Hamilton Art School and the Central Ontario School of Art and Design in Toronto. He joined the Grip Ltd. advertising agency in 1895 as a commercial artist, where he met Tom Thomson and a few of the future members of the Group of Seven. He formed a friendship with Lawren Harris, with whom he made several trips to Algoma and Lake Superior. He was a member of the Group of Seven, and was appointed the principal of the Ontario College of Art in Toronto in 1929. He is considered one of Canada’s most important landscape painters.

Works
June Clouds - 1914, oil on linen. Edmonton Art Gallery
Atlantic Beach and Fog Bank Near Petite Riviere, Nova Scotia - 1922, oil on pulp board. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia
Harbour Entrance, Petite Riviere - 1922, oil on board. Edmonton Art Gallery
Rain in the Mountains -1924, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Hamilton
A Glacial Lake, Rocky Mountains - 1925, Lithograph 47/100. Edmonton Art Gallery
Rainbow, Lake O’Hara - 1930, oil on canvas; board. Edmonton Art Gallery

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in London, England in 1838. Died in Toronto, Ontario in 1934. Although he took a few art courses in England, Thomas Mower Martin RCA was self-taught. He came to Canada in 1862. He was one of the founders of the Ontario Society of Artists in 1872 and of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts in 1880. He was the first director of the Ontario Government Art School in 1877, but left the position to travel across Canada. He painted many Western Canadian landscapes during his first trip west in 1887–1888, with F.M. Bell-Smith, on a commission from the Canadian Pacific Railway. Equally at ease with oils and watercolour, Martin was best known as a portrait artist, but he also painted still lifes and landscapes, from Cape Breton in Nova Scotia to Victoria, British Columbia.

Works
Ontario Landscape - circa 1890, oil on canvas. Edmonton Art Gallery
Born in London, England in 1838. Died in Toronto, Ontario in 1934. Although he took a few art courses in England, Thomas Mower Martin RCA was self-taught. He came to Canada in 1862. He was one of the founders of the Ontario Society of Artists in 1872 and of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts in 1880. He was the first director of the Ontario Government Art School in 1877, but left the position to travel across Canada. He painted many Western Canadian landscapes during his first trip west in 1887–1888, with F.M. Bell-Smith, on a commission from the Canadian Pacific Railway. Equally at ease with oils and watercolour, Martin was best known as a portrait artist, but he also painted still lifes and landscapes, from Cape Breton in Nova Scotia to Victoria, British Columbia.

Works
Ontario Landscape - circa 1890, oil on canvas. Edmonton Art Gallery

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Toronto, Ontario in 1879. Died in Swanage, England in 1915. Helen McNicoll RCA became deaf after a bout of scarlet fever during her childhood. She studied with William Brymner in Montréal, and then in London at the Slade School of Art and at St. Ives, in Cornwall with the British painter A. Talmage. She won the Jessie Dow Prize in 1908 and the Women’s Art Society Prize in 1914. After becoming a member of the Royal Society of British Artists in 1913, she became an associate member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts. McNicoll, who was strongly influenced by Impressionism, painted landscapes, portraits, seascapes and genre paintings in both Quebec and particularly in France. Most of her works include impressions of an overexposed play of light.

Works
Midsummer - circa 1909, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia
Born in Toronto, Ontario in 1879. Died in Swanage, England in 1915. Helen McNicoll RCA became deaf after a bout of scarlet fever during her childhood. She studied with William Brymner in Montréal, and then in London at the Slade School of Art and at St. Ives, in Cornwall with the British painter A. Talmage. She won the Jessie Dow Prize in 1908 and the Women’s Art Society Prize in 1914. After becoming a member of the Royal Society of British Artists in 1913, she became an associate member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts. McNicoll, who was strongly influenced by Impressionism, painted landscapes, portraits, seascapes and genre paintings in both Quebec and particularly in France. Most of her works include impressions of an overexposed play of light.

Works
Midsummer - circa 1909, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born near Paisley, Ontario in 1882. Died in Bancroft, Ontario in 1953. Milne, who went to New York to study at the Art Students League (1903–1905) to become an illustrator, attended classes with Robert Henri and William Chase. He eventually chose to become a painter rather than an illustrator, and exhibited his canvasses at the 1913 Armoury Show. During the First World War, he was a painter for the Army. He returned to Canada permanently in 1929, settling in Ontario, where he painted mainly around Temagami and Baptiste Lake near Bancroft. His work is almost evenly divided between watercolours and oils.

Works
The Ski Jump - 1927, oil on canvas. Edmonton Art Gallery
Green Elm in Autumn - 1929, oil on canvas. Edmonton Art Gallery
Dark Pool, Ti Magami - 1929, oil on canvas. The Mon Read More
Born near Paisley, Ontario in 1882. Died in Bancroft, Ontario in 1953. Milne, who went to New York to study at the Art Students League (1903–1905) to become an illustrator, attended classes with Robert Henri and William Chase. He eventually chose to become a painter rather than an illustrator, and exhibited his canvasses at the 1913 Armoury Show. During the First World War, he was a painter for the Army. He returned to Canada permanently in 1929, settling in Ontario, where he painted mainly around Temagami and Baptiste Lake near Bancroft. His work is almost evenly divided between watercolours and oils.

Works
The Ski Jump - 1927, oil on canvas. Edmonton Art Gallery
Green Elm in Autumn - 1929, oil on canvas. Edmonton Art Gallery
Dark Pool, Ti Magami - 1929, oil on canvas. The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Montréal, Quebec in 1865. Died in Tunis, Tunisia in 1924. James Wilson Morrice RCA, who was born into an affluent Montréal family, studied law in Toronto from 1882 to 1886. After graduating and being admitted to the Bar, he devoted himself entirely to painting. In 1888, he exhibited his works for the first time. Towards 1890, he made a decisive trip to Europe, and only ever returned to Canada for short periods. In Paris, Morrice studied with Harpignies, who elicited his interest in landscape and encouraged him to paint from nature. He admired Whistler’s work, was a regular at literary circles and formed a friendship with Somerset Maughan. Between 1890 and 1924, Morrice travelled a great deal, first in Brittany and then Venice, North Africa—specifically Morocco, where he shared a studio with Matisse—and Tunisia. He also travelled to the West Indies and the Caribbean (Cuba, Trinidad and Jamaica).

Works
Winter Landscape with Horse-drawn Sleigh Read More
Born in Montréal, Quebec in 1865. Died in Tunis, Tunisia in 1924. James Wilson Morrice RCA, who was born into an affluent Montréal family, studied law in Toronto from 1882 to 1886. After graduating and being admitted to the Bar, he devoted himself entirely to painting. In 1888, he exhibited his works for the first time. Towards 1890, he made a decisive trip to Europe, and only ever returned to Canada for short periods. In Paris, Morrice studied with Harpignies, who elicited his interest in landscape and encouraged him to paint from nature. He admired Whistler’s work, was a regular at literary circles and formed a friendship with Somerset Maughan. Between 1890 and 1924, Morrice travelled a great deal, first in Brittany and then Venice, North Africa—specifically Morocco, where he shared a studio with Matisse—and Tunisia. He also travelled to the West Indies and the Caribbean (Cuba, Trinidad and Jamaica).

Works
Winter Landscape with Horse-drawn Sleigh - circa 1896, oil on panel. The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
The Citadel, Quebec - 1897, oil on canvas. Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec
View of Quebec City From The River - 1897, oil on panel. Edmonton Art Gallery
The Beach at St. Malo - 1898 - 1899, oil sketch on panel. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia
Venice, Looking Out over the Lagoon - circa 1904, oil on canvas. The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
Figures on a River Embankment, Brittany - circa 1905, oil sketch on panel. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia
Paris by Night - circa 1909-1910, oil on panel. The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
View of a North African Town - 1912-1914, oil on panel. Art Gallery of Hamilton
Tangiers - 1912, oil on canvas. Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec
The Pond, West Indies - circa 1921, oil on canvas. The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Montréal, Quebec in 1893. Died in Rawdon, Quebec in 1986. Kathleen Morris RCA studied painting by taking private courses with the Gardiner sisters in Montréal. She then enrolled at the Art Association of Montreal School, where she took courses with William Brymner from 1907 to 1917, and spent two years studying with Maurice Cullen. In the early 1920s, she was a member of the Beaver Hall Group. She lived in Ottawa from 1922 to 1929, but returned frequently to Montréal. She exhibited her canvasses at the exhibitions of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts, the Art Association of Montreal and the Ontario Society of Artists. Genre scenes, markets and landscapes were her preferred subjects. Her work was admired in Canada, England and South America. However, throughout her career, she only ever had one solo exhibition, in 1939.

Works
After Grand Mass, Berthier-en-haut - 1927, oil on canvas. The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
Born in Montréal, Quebec in 1893. Died in Rawdon, Quebec in 1986. Kathleen Morris RCA studied painting by taking private courses with the Gardiner sisters in Montréal. She then enrolled at the Art Association of Montreal School, where she took courses with William Brymner from 1907 to 1917, and spent two years studying with Maurice Cullen. In the early 1920s, she was a member of the Beaver Hall Group. She lived in Ottawa from 1922 to 1929, but returned frequently to Montréal. She exhibited her canvasses at the exhibitions of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts, the Art Association of Montreal and the Ontario Society of Artists. Genre scenes, markets and landscapes were her preferred subjects. Her work was admired in Canada, England and South America. However, throughout her career, she only ever had one solo exhibition, in 1939.

Works
After Grand Mass, Berthier-en-haut - 1927, oil on canvas. The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Isle of Man, United Kingdom in 1870. Died in Sheffield England in 1946. Elizabeth Styring Nutt RCA, who was trained in Sheffield at the same institution as Arthur Lismer, was recommended by Lismer to succeed him as the head of the Victoria School of Art and Design in Halifax. She took up her duties the same year that she arrived in Canada in 1919. She had the name of the school changed in 1925 to the Nova Scotia College of Art. In 1943, health problems forced her to leave her position at the school. Unlike Lismer, Nutt maintained strong ties with British academic traditions, which she liked to instill in her students. She exhibited her works at the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts beginning in 1929.

Works
Winter, Northwest Arm, Halifax - 1927, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia
Born in Isle of Man, United Kingdom in 1870. Died in Sheffield England in 1946. Elizabeth Styring Nutt RCA, who was trained in Sheffield at the same institution as Arthur Lismer, was recommended by Lismer to succeed him as the head of the Victoria School of Art and Design in Halifax. She took up her duties the same year that she arrived in Canada in 1919. She had the name of the school changed in 1925 to the Nova Scotia College of Art. In 1943, health problems forced her to leave her position at the school. Unlike Lismer, Nutt maintained strong ties with British academic traditions, which she liked to instill in her students. She exhibited her works at the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts beginning in 1929.

Works
Winter, Northwest Arm, Halifax - 1927, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Shanty Bay, Ontario in 1832. Died in Toronto, Ontario in 1899. After studying art at Upper Canada College in Toronto with John G. Howard, Lucius O’Brien RCA undertook a career as an engineer. Around 1872, he joined the Ontario Society of Artists, and became vice-president between 1873 and 1880. He was one of the founding members of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts (1880). In 1892, he began to paint and teach in Toronto. O’Brien is considered one of Canada’s best landscape painters, both for watercolours and oils. His subjects are mainly from Ontario, but he also painted in Western Canada. His works, because of their light, are reminiscent of the paintings by American artists Thomas Eakins and Albert Bierstadt.

Works
Cape Trinity - A September Day on the Saguenay River - 1884, watercolour on paper. Art Gallery of Hamilton
Born in Shanty Bay, Ontario in 1832. Died in Toronto, Ontario in 1899. After studying art at Upper Canada College in Toronto with John G. Howard, Lucius O’Brien RCA undertook a career as an engineer. Around 1872, he joined the Ontario Society of Artists, and became vice-president between 1873 and 1880. He was one of the founding members of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts (1880). In 1892, he began to paint and teach in Toronto. O’Brien is considered one of Canada’s best landscape painters, both for watercolours and oils. His subjects are mainly from Ontario, but he also painted in Western Canada. His works, because of their light, are reminiscent of the paintings by American artists Thomas Eakins and Albert Bierstadt.

Works
Cape Trinity - A September Day on the Saguenay River - 1884, watercolour on paper. Art Gallery of Hamilton

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland in 1898. Died in Montréal, Quebec in 1967. After receiving the Wood Scholarship in 1919 in Montréal, Robert Pilot RCA left to study in Paris at the Julian Academy under the direction of Pierre Laurens. After returning to Montréal, he worked with William Brymner, Edmond Dyonnet and Maurice Cullen (his stepfather). He was elected a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts, of which he was president from 1952 to 1954. Pilot, who was mainly known as a landscape painter, developed an interest in the landscapes of Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, as well as the Canadian West. In 1928, in an interview with the critic Jean Chauvin, he said that he considered himself “a classical painter because of his balance, sense of proportion and distaste for anything bizarre.”

Works
The Alcantara; Toledo - 1927, oil on board. Art Gallery of Hamilton
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Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland in 1898. Died in Montréal, Quebec in 1967. After receiving the Wood Scholarship in 1919 in Montréal, Robert Pilot RCA left to study in Paris at the Julian Academy under the direction of Pierre Laurens. After returning to Montréal, he worked with William Brymner, Edmond Dyonnet and Maurice Cullen (his stepfather). He was elected a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts, of which he was president from 1952 to 1954. Pilot, who was mainly known as a landscape painter, developed an interest in the landscapes of Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, as well as the Canadian West. In 1928, in an interview with the critic Jean Chauvin, he said that he considered himself “a classical painter because of his balance, sense of proportion and distaste for anything bizarre.”

Works
The Alcantara; Toledo - 1927, oil on board. Art Gallery of Hamilton
Cueta, Spanish Morocco - 1927, oil on pannel. Art Gallery of Hamilton

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives

The learner will:
  • Become familiar with some of the best known landscape painters in Canada and Russia (1860-1940)
  • Relate the experiences of landscape painters, their geography, and their era, to the style and elements in their work
  • Compare the life experiences of landscape painters in Russia and Canada working during the period 1860-1940

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