Black and white photograph of the Armstrong Quarry shows cords of wood stacked on the wharf

photograph: Armstrong Lime Quarry, c. 1895. This photograph of the Armstrong Quarry shows cords of wood stacked on the wharf. To make quicklime the marble was burned in a kiln to drive off carbon dioxide. Large quantities of wood were required to manufacture quicklime.

Unknown
Gift of Alice Murdoch, 1961
c. 1895
Saint John, New Brunswick, CANADA
albumen print, mounted on card
10.8 x 16.4 cm
1961.25a
© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour photograph of scattered rocks and bricks

photograph: Armstrong Lime Quarry kiln, 2008. The remains of the kiln (right) of the Armstrong Quarry.

New Brunswick Museum
New Brunswick Museum
2008
Saint John, New Brunswick, CANADA
© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of rock with copper mineral

Chalcopyrite, Silurian, Letete, Charlotte County, New Brunswick. In the summer of 1863, Loring Bailey visited copper mines in Charlotte County. Bailey described the LeTete operation as one where the ore was raised with oxen and smelted on-site in pots over a bonfire.

New Brunswick Museum
New Brunswick Museum

Letete, New Brunswick, CANADA
St. George, New Brunswick, CANADA
Specimen width 10 cm
NBMM 3066
© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour image of gold core sample

Core sample: gold mine, Upper Carboniferous-Permian, Cape Spencer. Gordex Minerals Ltd. opened the Cape Spencer mine near Saint John in 1986.

New Brunswick Museum
New Brunswick Museum

Saint John, New Brunswick, CANADA
Cape Spencer, New Brunswick, CANADA
Specimen width 10 cm
NBME 1060
© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Black and white print of man in black suit, beard and glasses

print: Charles Thomas Jackson (1805-1880), c. 1906, George Perkins Merrill, Contributions to the History of American Geology, Plate 11

George Perkins Merrill, Contributions to the History of American Geology, Plate 11
New Brunswick Museum

Woodstock, New Brunswick, CANADA
© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour photograph of inside of abandoned copper mine

photograph: Dorchester Copper Mine, Dorchester, New Brunswick, 2011. Upper Carboniferous, Boss Point Formation, sandstone

Karen Vanderwolf
New Brunswick Museum
2011
Dorchester, New Brunswick, CANADA
© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Black and white print of sandstone quarry with men, horses, booms and pulleys

print: Quarry on Section 10 of the Intercolonial Railway, Newcastle, N.B., 1872, wood engraving on wove paper. In the 1800s there was a boom in stone working in New Brunswick at a time when many public buildings, private residences, jails, and churches were built. Near Miramichi, sandstone quarries operated at places like Quarryville and French Fort Cove.

Unknown
John Clarence Webster Canadiana Collection
1872
Newcastle, New Brunswick, CANADA
Miramichi, New Brunswick, CANADA
wood engraving on wove paper
17.3 x 24.1 cm
W1231
© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Black and white photograph of sandstone blocks, cranes, pulleys

photograph: Sackville Freestone Company Limited, Sackville, New Brunswick, 1900-1910. Red sandstone from Sackville was used far and wide in eastern Canada including the legislature building in Ontario. Visitors to Mount Allison University in Sackville can see the extensive use of the stone on the campus.

Unknown
New Brunswick Museum
1900 -
Sackville, New Brunswick, CANADA
gelatine silver print, mounted on card
15.9 x 20.6 cm
X11478
© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Colour photograph of man walking through sand and gravel pit

photograph: View of the Atlantic Silica Inc. quarry, Vinegar Hill, New Brunswick, 2007. Quartz sand and gravel is quarried by Atlantic Silica Inc. Some uses include quartz pebbles for aquarium gravel, decorative stone, foundry sands, golf course sands, mortar mixes, playground sands, filtration media and quartz sand for blasting sands.

New Brunswick Museum
New Brunswick Museum
2007
Vinegar Hill, New Brunswick, CANADA
Norton, New Brunswick, CANADA
© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Dr. Randall Miller discusses the Markhamville Manganese Mines

Dr. Randall Miller Research Curator, Geology and Palaeontology New Brunswick Museum

In the 1860s George Matthew found pyrolusite and manganite near Sussex. The manganese ore is found in limestone deposited in the Windsor Sea. The discovery led to a successful mining operation, exporting 55,000 tons of ore used in the production of glass, varnish, cement and steel. Markhamville takes its name from Alfred Markham, manager of the manganese mines. Imagine working underground in the late 1800s. Newspaper stories provide a glimpse of mining operations.

Saint John Daily News. January 8, 1868. EXPLOSION IN A MINE.

We understand that a rather serious accident occurred at the Manganese Mines. Five men were working at the time of the accident in one of the pits two hundred and fifty feet below the surface of the earth. One of the miners was engaged in charging a hole, which had just been drilled for a blast. Mr. Markham stood alongside this man. Just as the miner had got the charge home, the gun-cotton exploded. For some little time after the explosion the men were oblivious to everything; but regaining consciousness they moved as fast as they could in the darkness in which they were enshrouded towards the mouth of the level. Mr. Markham, who was uninjured, managed on getting out to procure lights, and returning met the two miners.

New Brunswick Museum
New Brunswick Museum
2012
Markhamville, New Brunswick, CANADA
© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.


Learning Objectives

Curriculum Outcomes:
  • follow up on and extend others’ ideas in order to reflect upon their own interpretation of experiences
  • ask perceptive/probing questions to explore ideas and gain information
  • address complex issues, present points of view backed by evidence, and modify, defend, or argue for their positions in response to opposing points of view
  • listen critically to evaluate others’ ideas in terms of their own understanding and experiences, and identify ambiguities, and unsubstantiated statements
  • effectively adapt language and delivery for a variety of audiences and situations in order to achieve their goals or intents
  • critically evaluate others’ use of language and use this knowledge to reflect on and improve their own uses of language
  • demonstrate sensitivity and respect in interaction with peers and others in both informal and formal situations

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