Club

The handle of this war club is flat with a scalloped hand grip and a hide thong threaded through the base of the handle.

Royal Ontario Museum

Wood; feather; stain; hide string
Length 58.5 cm Width14.5 cm Diameter 8.0 cm
NS28257
©1996 - the Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto). All Rights Reserved.


CULTURAL CONTEXT : Warfare?

DESCRIPTION : The handle of this war club is flat with a scalloped hand grip and a hide thong threaded through the base of the handle. It is stained red and black and terminates in a stylized head of an animal holding a large round ball in its mouth. Feathers are tied with the threaded hide thong through the handle in two places, one directly behind the ball and the other a third of the way down the handle.

GEO-CULTURAL AREA : Northeast

ETHNOLINGUISTIC GROUP : Algonquian ?

NATURAL REGION : Woodlands

PROVINCE : Ontario ?

PERIOD : early 19th Century

MATERIAL : Wood; feather; stain; hide string

METHOD OF MANUFACTURE : Carved
CULTURAL CONTEXT : Warfare?

DESCRIPTION : The handle of this war club is flat with a scalloped hand grip and a hide thong threaded through the base of the handle. It is stained red and black and terminates in a stylized head of an animal holding a large round ball in its mouth. Feathers are tied with the threaded hide thong through the handle in two places, one directly behind the ball and the other a third of the way down the handle.

GEO-CULTURAL AREA : Northeast

ETHNOLINGUISTIC GROUP : Algonquian ?

NATURAL REGION : Woodlands

PROVINCE : Ontario ?

PERIOD : early 19th Century

MATERIAL : Wood; feather; stain; hide string

METHOD OF MANUFACTURE : Carved

©1996 - the Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto). All Rights Reserved.

Rice sticks and wild rice

Rice sticks and wild rice

Royal Ontario Museum

Wood
LENGTH : 64.8 cm
963.143.11.A
©1996 - the Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto). All Rights Reserved.


CULTURAL CONTEXT : Food gathering; rice was an important staple in the diet of the Ojibwa.

DESCRIPTION : Two carved sticks, slightly tapered. These were used to harvest wild rice. In gathering the rice, an individual in a canoe would use one stick to bend the rice stalks over the canoe and using the other stick, would flail the stalks causing the rice to fall into the canoe.

GEO-CULTURAL AREA : Northeast

ETHNOLINGUISTIC GROUP : Algonquian

CULTURE : Ojibwa

NATURAL REGION : Woodlands

PROVINCE : Minnesota

PERIOD : mid 20th Century

MATERIAL : Wood

METHOD OF MANUFACTURE : Carved
CULTURAL CONTEXT : Food gathering; rice was an important staple in the diet of the Ojibwa.

DESCRIPTION : Two carved sticks, slightly tapered. These were used to harvest wild rice. In gathering the rice, an individual in a canoe would use one stick to bend the rice stalks over the canoe and using the other stick, would flail the stalks causing the rice to fall into the canoe.

GEO-CULTURAL AREA : Northeast

ETHNOLINGUISTIC GROUP : Algonquian

CULTURE : Ojibwa

NATURAL REGION : Woodlands

PROVINCE : Minnesota

PERIOD : mid 20th Century

MATERIAL : Wood

METHOD OF MANUFACTURE : Carved

©1996 - the Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto). All Rights Reserved.

Container

The container might have been used in religious or curative ceremonies.

Royal Ontario Museum

Birchbark; fibre; basswood
WIDTH 19.0 cm HEIGHT 15.0 cm DIAMETER 11.5 cm
966X84.123
©1996 - the Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto). All Rights Reserved.


CULTURAL CONTEXT : Used for storage and/or collecting; some of the images appear to be supernatural or ritual representations. Perhaps the container was used in religious or curative ceremonies.

DESCRIPTION : It has a rectangular base and the sides bulge, then narrow to a circular rim of wood strips wound with split roots or basswood fibre. The narrow sides of the rectangular base are sewn with the same split root or basswood fibre in semi circular and vertical seams. The images on the outer surface were made by removing portions of the darker, outer bark layer. There are two human figures on one side of the container just below the rim with triangular patterns and animal figures on the other.

GEO-CULTURAL AREA : Northeast

ETHNOLINGUISTIC GROUP : Algonquian

CULTURE : Ojibwa ?

NATURAL REGION : Woodlands

PROVINCE : Ontario ?

PERIOD : 18th Century ?; 19th Century ?

MATERIAL : Birchbark; fibre; basswood

METHOD OF MANUFACTURE : Sewn

DECORATIVE TECHNIQUE : Sgraffito; scraped ornamentation
CULTURAL CONTEXT : Used for storage and/or collecting; some of the images appear to be supernatural or ritual representations. Perhaps the container was used in religious or curative ceremonies.

DESCRIPTION : It has a rectangular base and the sides bulge, then narrow to a circular rim of wood strips wound with split roots or basswood fibre. The narrow sides of the rectangular base are sewn with the same split root or basswood fibre in semi circular and vertical seams. The images on the outer surface were made by removing portions of the darker, outer bark layer. There are two human figures on one side of the container just below the rim with triangular patterns and animal figures on the other.

GEO-CULTURAL AREA : Northeast

ETHNOLINGUISTIC GROUP : Algonquian

CULTURE : Ojibwa ?

NATURAL REGION : Woodlands

PROVINCE : Ontario ?

PERIOD : 18th Century ?; 19th Century ?

MATERIAL : Birchbark; fibre; basswood

METHOD OF MANUFACTURE : Sewn

DECORATIVE TECHNIQUE : Sgraffito; scraped ornamentation

©1996 - the Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto). All Rights Reserved.

Basket

Basket used for washing or hulling corn.

Royal Ontario Museum

White ash; hickory bark
HEIGHT : 17.5 cm DIAMETER : 22.5 cm
HJ880
©1996 - the Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto). All Rights Reserved.


CULTURAL CONTEXT : Food preparation; used for washing or hulling corn.

DESCRIPTION: This basket is made of white ash splints and bound with hickory bark. It is square on the bottom and round at the top. Holes on two sides of the basket are left just below the top to form handles. It is an older form since such baskets were made with drop handles later on. The basket is a gift of Miss M. Lismer.

GEO-CULTURAL AREA : Northeast

ETHNOLINGUISTIC GROUP : Iroquoian; Seneca

CULTURE : Seneca

NATURAL REGION : Woodlands

PROVINCE : New York

MATERIAL : White ash; hickory bark

METHOD OF MANUFACTURE : Woven; twilled
CULTURAL CONTEXT : Food preparation; used for washing or hulling corn.

DESCRIPTION: This basket is made of white ash splints and bound with hickory bark. It is square on the bottom and round at the top. Holes on two sides of the basket are left just below the top to form handles. It is an older form since such baskets were made with drop handles later on. The basket is a gift of Miss M. Lismer.

GEO-CULTURAL AREA : Northeast

ETHNOLINGUISTIC GROUP : Iroquoian; Seneca

CULTURE : Seneca

NATURAL REGION : Woodlands

PROVINCE : New York

MATERIAL : White ash; hickory bark

METHOD OF MANUFACTURE : Woven; twilled

©1996 - the Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto). All Rights Reserved.

Wampum belt

Wampum was very significant among the Northeastern nations, serving primarily to record.

Royal Ontario Museum

Clam shell; Leather; Fur
Length : 44.0 cm Width : 12.5 cm
911.3.130
©1996 - the Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto). All Rights Reserved.


CULTURAL CONTEXT: Wampum was very significant among the Northeastern nations, serving primarily to record, as a memory aid, terms by which neighbouring cultures and communities agreed to co-exist.

DESCRIPTION: Purple beads made from saltwater shells strung on a fibre thread form the background of the belt. This wampum belt features two figures in the centre, a Native and a non-Native (with hat) clasping hands. Also shown are two parallel diagonal lines worked in white beads. This belt is finished with a strip of fur at each end.

GEO-CULTURAL AREA : Northeast

ETHNOLINGUISTIC GROUP : Iroquoian ?; Algonquian ?

CULTURE : Iroquois ?; Algonquian ?

PERIOD : 16th Century - 18th Century

MATERIAL : Clam shell; Leather; Fur

METHOD OF MANUFACTURE : Woven

DECORATIVE TECHNIQUE : Woven
CULTURAL CONTEXT: Wampum was very significant among the Northeastern nations, serving primarily to record, as a memory aid, terms by which neighbouring cultures and communities agreed to co-exist.

DESCRIPTION: Purple beads made from saltwater shells strung on a fibre thread form the background of the belt. This wampum belt features two figures in the centre, a Native and a non-Native (with hat) clasping hands. Also shown are two parallel diagonal lines worked in white beads. This belt is finished with a strip of fur at each end.

GEO-CULTURAL AREA : Northeast

ETHNOLINGUISTIC GROUP : Iroquoian ?; Algonquian ?

CULTURE : Iroquois ?; Algonquian ?

PERIOD : 16th Century - 18th Century

MATERIAL : Clam shell; Leather; Fur

METHOD OF MANUFACTURE : Woven

DECORATIVE TECHNIQUE : Woven

©1996 - the Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto). All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives

The learner will:
  • Identify some traditional materials and manufacture methods utilized by Canadian Northeast peoples
  • Identify some objects made by Canadian Northeast peoples and their uses

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