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Appendix: The Challenges of Being a Woman Artist

I asked Mr. Gibb's advice as to where I should study. "Colarossi," he replied. "At Colarossi's men and women students work together. At Julien's the classes are separate. It is often a distinct advantage for women students to see the stronger work of men."—Mr. Gibb had not a high opinion of the work of women artists.
The first month at Colarossi's was hard. There was no other woman in the class; there was not one word of my own language spoken. The French professor gabbled and gesticulated before my easel—passed on. I did not know whether he had praised or condemned. I missed women; there was not even a woman model."

Emily Carr, Growing Pains: The Autobiography of Emily Carr. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 2005, p. 264.

The question "Why have there been no great women artists?" has led us to the conclusion, so far, that art is not a free, autonomous activity of a super-endowed individual, "influenced" by previous artists, and, more vaguely and superficially, by "social forces," but rather, that the total situation of art making, both in terms of the development of the art maker and in the nature and quality of the work of art itself, occur in a social situation, are integral elements of this social structure, and are mediated and determined by specific and definable social institutions, be they art academies, systems of patronage, mythologies of the divine creator, artist as he-man or social outcast.

Linda Nochlin, Women, Art and Power and Other Essays. Boulder CO: Westview Press, 1988, p. 154.