Land of the Spirits
Virtual Museum of Canada
life along the bonnecheretimelineinteractive archaeological digcollectionsteaching resources


Photograph of snow-covered spruce branch



10 000 BCE: Life on the Ice-edge

Early post-glacial tundra was succeeded by open spruce parkland, which was replaced by closed pine forest. The boreal forest was dominated by species characteristic of cool, more northerly regions, including black and white spruce and jack pine. Evidence of this forest and the earlier vegetation consists of pollen and spores preserved in sediments deposited on lake bottoms.

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