First Nations - Traditional Knowledge Quiz

Student Name: ______________________________


Short answer section:

Answer all of the following questions using as much detail as you can. You do not need to write full sentences, but should try to make your answers as complete as possible.


1. What part of caribou, moose and sheep was used to make tools by the Southern Tutchone-speaking people in the Kluane region?





2. What kinds of tools were made from these animal parts?





3. What did the Southern Tutchone speakers make with hides?








4. What are the basic ideas behind First Nations natural spirituality?









5. According to these ideas, what will happen if the natural balance is upset?









6. How did trade between First Nations affect the Southern Tutchone speakers in the Kluane area?







Longer Answer:

Answer each of the following five questions as thoroughly as possible in a short paragraph. Use complete sentences. Include as many details and ideas as you can. Give the most thorough answer you are able to.


1. Describe the Dall sheep-hunting scenario from the website. How did the hunters set up the area for hunting? What techniques did they use to make sure they got maximum reward for their efforts? How did they use their deep understanding of Dall sheep habits to assist them in their hunt? How was the animal used afterward?




























2. Describe as fully as possible what is meant by “a nomadic lifestyle”. Describe what you have learned about the nomadic lifestyle of the First Nations people in the area of Mount Logan:


















3. Describe the connection the First Nations people had to the land, why this is important when one has a nomadic lifestyle, and how this is shown in the descriptive place names in Southern Tutchone.


















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4. What is a “cache” and how did these assist the First Nations people in the area of Mount Logan to live a nomadic lifestyle?

















5. Describe what kinds of fish, animals, and plants were harvested, how people travelled, and what kinds of activities were engaged in during the following seasons:







Mount Logan Site: First Nations - Traditional Knowledge Quiz

TEACHER COPY

Short answer section:


Answer all of the following questions using as much detail as you can. You do not need to write full sentences, but should try to make your answers as complete as possible.


1. What part of caribou, moose and sheep was used to make tools by the Southern Tutchone-speaking people in the Kluane region?


antlers


2. What kinds of tools were made from these animal parts?


spoons, knives, needles, skin scrapers


3. What did the Southern Tutchone speakers make with hides?


  • tanned: clothes and shelter
  • raw: snowshoes, hunting bags, fishing nets


4. What are the basic ideas behind First Nations natural spirituality?


  • all things are connected
  • mutual respect between land, animals and natural world.

5. According to these ideas, what will happen if the natural balance is upset?

  • hard times will follow in the environment, in personal lives, and in the spiritual world.

6. How did trade between First Nations affect the Southern Tutchone speakers in the Kluane area?
  • functioned as “middle men” between coastal First Nations and inland groups, allowing for access to copper and other highly sought commodities.
  • Secured relationships with neighbouring groups by sending sons to live there as representatives.


Longer Answer:


1. Answer each of the following five questions as thoroughly as possible in a short paragraph. Use complete sentences. Include as many details and ideas as you can. Give the most thorough answer you are able to.

Describe the Dall sheep-hunting scenario from the website. How did the hunters set up the area for hunting? What techniques did they use to make sure they got maximum reward for their efforts? How did they use their deep understanding of Dall sheep habits to assist them in their hunt? How was the animal used afterward?


sample answer:


- The hunters set up the area by locating the sheep paths and then setting willow and rawhide snares. They then systematically herded the sheep towards the paths with the snares in order to catch a larger number of sheep than if they had used another hunting method. Instead of getting maybe one or two sheep with spears or arrows, they used this system to get a larger number of sheep. They knew several things about the Dall sheep, which assisted them in their hunt. They knew where to find the sheep that day. They knew that Dall sheep would choose to run along their customary trails instead of just galloping around. They knew that the scent of humans would frighten the Dall sheep into running in the other direction. They also knew how to use every single part of the sheep, for food, winter clothing, vessels, tools, etc. in order to honour the gift of the sheep. They smoked and dried much of the meat to help to feed their community through the winter.


2. Describe as fully as possible what is meant by “a nomadic lifestyle”. Describe what you have learned about the nomadic lifestyle of the First Nations people in the area of Mount Logan.


Sample answer:


A nomadic lifestyle is one in which groups of people move (usually with the seasons) to take advantage of food sources in different areas. One area cannot support people living on it year round, and so people move to where the food is. Usually, people have a yearly route which they follow over and over. The First Nations people in the area of Mount Logan moved according to the time of year, to take advantage of fish runs, hunting and trapping times, vegetation harvesting, etc. They knew their land, and what to expect from it. They knew the best time to find large game lower down the mountain, or when the salmon were running. To make this nomadic life easier, people built caches to store food, tools, and other items to heavy to carry around. This way, they had to carry less as they travelled. The people gathered together at certain times of the year, and split into smaller groups in winter and spring. They travelled by foot, snowshoes, dogsled and boat.


3. Describe the connection the First Nations people had to the land, why this is important when one has a nomadic lifestyle, and how this is shown in the descriptive place names in Southern Tutchone.


Sample answer: If people live a nomadic lifestyle, it is very important to know the land extremely well and understand its patterns and balance. In times before the arrival of the Europeans, there were no maps and so people had to use their knowledge of the land in order to find their way and in order to direct others as to the best routes to take. The First Nations people knew the land in their seasonal paths extremely well, including seasonal animal, fish and plant cycles. One extremely important element of their spirituality was to live in balance with the land, and this was a principle people had to live by. Landforms such as lakes, rivers, and mountains were given names that described how they looked or what could be seen there. This allowed people to remember and communicate that the next land form they were looking for was a mountain shaped like a wide, flat scraper.


4. What is a “cache” and how did these assist the First Nations people in the area of Mount Logan to live a nomadic lifestyle?


Sample answer: A cache is a log structure built on high stilt-like posts. It is used for storage of dried food, housing materials, tools, etc. People built a number of caches along the seasonal route, so that they would not have to carry all of their food and tools with them as they travelled. They could arrive at the cache and build a shelter, have food to eat, and all of their necessities right away. Without the caches, they would have had to carry so much weight that they could not have travelled as quickly and as far as they needed to in order to hunt, fish and gather their food.


5. Describe what kinds of fish, animals, and plants were harvested, how people travelled, and what kinds of activities were engaged in during the following seasons:


sample answers:


Spring and summer:


  • travel by boat, raft, foot.
  • harvest berries and roots
  • harvest spawning fish
  • hunt small animals and migratory birds
  • preserving food for winter
  • gathering with other families


Fall

  • hunting big game such as migratory caribou
  • preserving meat and food for winter


Winter

  • travel by dogsled or snowshoe
  • trapping, ice fishing
  • hunting moose
  • carving, making tools, sewing