Home

See more of the Virtual Museum of Canada

Before the War
The Holocaust
Liberation
Displaced Persons Camps
Where Can We Go?
The Journey
Welcome to Canada
New Lives
Canadian Immigration Overview
On Kristallnacht — the Night of Broken Glass — November 9, 1938, Jewish synagogues and businesses in Germany and Austria were attacked and hundreds of Jews arrested. This marked a new level of ferocity in the Nazis' anti-Semitic policies.

As European countries came under German occupation during World War II, Nazis applied anti-Jewish measures and established ghettos to confine Jewish populations. By the end of 1941, the Final Solution, the Nazi policy of exterminating all Jews, was in place and the mass deportations of Jews to the concentration camps had begun.     more... »
Concentration Camps
The Nazis established prison camps shortly after assuming power in 1933 to hold and isolate political opponents and those considered to be "racially" undesirable such as Jews and Gypsies. Most of the approximately 1800 camps were transit or labour camps. The first were Dachau, Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen. After the occupation of Poland, extermination camps were established for mass murder at Auschwitz-Birkenau, Treblinka, Sobibor, Belzec, Chelmno and Majdanek.
Deportation
Part of the Nazi program to remove Jews from Germany in order to increase living space for ethnic Germans. Initially an effort to rid German-held land of Jews, deportation eventually became a means to deliver Jews to concentration camps and implement the Final Solution.
Final Solution
The Nazi code name for the plan to exterminate the Jews of Europe. Intended as a resolution to what the Nazis called the 'Jewish Question'. The plan was formalized at the Wannsee Conference, held in a suburb of Berlin in January 1942.
Ghetto
The Nazis revived the medieval term ghetto to describe the compulsory "Jewish Quarters" often in the poorest section of the city, where Jews from the surrounding areas were forced to live. Surrounded by barbed wire or walls, the ghettos were sealed before the deportation of Jews to the concentration camps. Established mostly in Eastern Europe, the ghettos were characterized by overcrowding, starvation and forced labour.
Kristallnacht
The "Night of Broken Glass" was the Nazi orchestrated attack against German and Austrian Jews on November 9, 1938. Hundreds of synagogues were burned, thousands of Jewish businesses were destroyed and 30,000 Jews were rounded-up and taken to Camps de concentration. The event marked an escalation in the Nazi persecution of Jews.
Nazi
A member of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) founded in 1919 and brought to power in 1933 under Adolf Hitler.
World War II
The war fought from 1939 to 1945, in which Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, the United States, Canada, China, and other allies defeated Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Japan. After Germany invaded Poland in September 1939 Britain declared war against Germany. Canada entered the war shortly afterwards. The United States entered the war after the bombing of Pearl Harbour in December 1941. The war ended with the surrender of Germany in May 1945 and the surrender of Japan in August 1945.