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This thirteen-page guide contains lesson ideas, discussion questions, extensions and supporting resources that relate directly to the orphans' narratives and the nine themes. It provides opportunities for individual student and small group work.

The Teacher's Guide is an Acrobat pdf document, designed to be used either on screen or printed for reference and classroom use.

Download the Teacher's Guide (613K)
These Acrobat pdf documents combine overviews and artifact facsimiles for each theme.

Download the artifact collection for:

Before the War (1.2MB)
The Holocaust (637K)
Liberation (3.4MB)
Displaced Persons' Camps (2.9MB)
Where Can We Go? (1.7MB)
The Journey (1.9MB)
Welcome to Canada (1.6MB)
New Lives (2.2MB)
Canadian Immigration Overview (2.2MB)
This 28-page Acrobat pdf file contains the complete transcripts of all of the war orphans' memoirs.

Download the Orphans' Stories (221K)
This Acrobat pdf document provides the meaning and historical significance of terms that appear throughout Open Hearts, Closed Doors.

Download the Glossary ( 220K)


Abella, Irving and Harold Troper. None Is Too Many.
Toronto: Lester & Orpen Dennys, 1983. Examines why Canada was closed to the Jews of Europe between 1933 and 1945. The title derives from the response of an anonymous, senior government official who when asked how many Jews should be allowed into the country after the war, replied "none is too many."

Canada and the Holocaust: Social Responsibility and Global Citizenship: A Resource Guide for Social Studies 11 Teachers.
British Columbia Ministry of Education, 2000. Focuses on the impact of Canada's immigration policies on Jews during the Holocaust. Document-based lessons examine the pre-war period, the war and post-war immigration policies. Includes case studies of the Evian Conference, the SS St. Louis and Jewish Children in Vichy, France. Provides support for the BC social studies 11 curriculum.

Draper, Paula & Troper, Harold. Archives of the Holocaust: Volume 15
Garland Publishing, Inc. New York & London, 1991.
A collection of Canadian documents dealing with the Holocaust and related topics from 1933 - 1950, housed in the National Archives of Canada in Ottawa and the National Archives of the Canadian Jewish Congress in Montreal.

Hemmendinger, Judith & Krell, Robert. The Children of Buchenwald: Child Survivors of the Holocaust and Their Post- War Lives.
Jerusalem: Gefen Publishing House, 2000. Tells the story of the 426 young survivors sent from Buchenwald to France. Details the story of their lives in the camps, after liberation, their distrust and aggressiveness during the early days, and later the bonds of affection that helped them regain confidence in humanity.

Kage, Joseph. With Faith and Thanksgiving, The Story of Two Hundred Years of Jewish Immigration and Immigrant Aid Effort in Canada (1760-1960).
Montreal, Quebec, The Eagle Publishing Company Ltd., 1962 Examines Jewish immigration to Canada from the mid 18th century to the mid 20th century, including immigration policies, aid organizations and the challenges faced by the immigrants.

Knowles, Valerie. Strangers at Our Gates: Canadian Immigration and Immigration Policy 1540-1997.
Dundurn Press, 1997.
Traces Canadian immigration and policy over the last 450 years.

Lappin, Ben. The Redeemed Children.
University of Toronto Press, 1963. Describes the Canadian Jewish Congress project to permit the entry of Jewish refugees to Canada.

Martz, Fraidie. Open Your Hearts.
Montreal: Vehicule Press, 1996. Story of the 1,123 Jewish War Orphans brought to Canada between 1947 and 1949. With the support of the Jewish community, these young people, traumatized by the Holocaust, flourished and became productive citizens.

Paris, Erna. Jews: An Account of their Experience in Canada
Ontario, Macmillan, 1980 The history of Jewish life in Canada. Offers insights into the collective struggle of European Jews to adapt to their new home.

Thomas, Gordan and Max Morgan Witts. Voyage of the Damned.
New York: Stein and Day, 1974. Reconstruction of the tragic voyage of the S.S. St. Louis, the boat carrying 937 Jewish refugees who were fleeing Nazi Germany. A reminder of how indifference can be as destructive as hatred.

Weinfeld, M., W. Shaffir & I. Cotler (eds.).The Canadian Jewish Mosaic.
Toronto; New York, NY, J. Wiley, 1981. Provides an introduction to the Jewish community in Canada. Examines the history of the Jews in Canada, their problems in maintaining Jewish identity and their approaches to anti-Semitism.

Whitaker, Reg. Double Standard: The Secret History of Canadian Immigration.
Toronto: Lester & Orpen Dennys Limited, 1987. History of Canada's immigration policies from World War II to the mid-1980s.



Boraks-Nemetz, Lillian. The Old Brown Suitcase.
Brentwood Bay: Ben-Simon, 1994.
Slava, a fourteen-year-old immigrant from Poland, arrives in Canada after the Second World War. She overcomes the memories of a painful past and the challenge of starting a new life. The author is a child-survivor of the Warsaw ghetto. Grades 5-9.

Kuper, Jack. After the Smoke Cleared. Stoddart, 1994.
In this sequel to Child of the Holocaust, Kuper who came to Canada as a member of the War Orphans group, recounts the story of his post-war life in Canada and his relationship with his father who reappeared after having been presumed killed in the war. Grades 10-12

Little, Jean. From Anna.
Harper Trophy, 1973. Anna Solden and her family immigrate to Canada due to the deteriorating situation in Germany in 1933. Their world changes dramatically as they adjust to a new country. Grades 5-7.



Children of the Storm
95 min. colour
On September 15, 1947, the SS Aquitania docked at Pier 21 in Halifax with 20 Jewish boys and girls, ages 11 to 18, orphaned survivors of the Holocaust. The new immigrants found themselves with new families, language, culture and in a battle with Canadian immigration officials over citizenship. Despite the obstacles, most made valuable contributions to their adopted country.

The Doomed Voyage of the St. Louis
50 min. colour
Documents the voyage of nearly 1000 German-Jews who sailed from Germany in 1939 aboard the St. Louis to seek refuge in Cuba. Torn by political strife and rising anti-Semitism, Cuba refused to allow most to disembark. The Jews sought asylum from other countries including the US and Canada but were refused and forced to returned to Europe. Historic footage and survivor commentary.

Leo's Journey
47 min., colour
A documentary about Leo Lowy's survival in Auschwitz. Leo and his twin sister Miriam were part of Dr. Josef Mengele's infamous twin experiments, which left a painful legacy. The film follows Lowy's return to Auschwitz and to his childhood home in the Ukraine. After the war, Leo came to Canada as a member of the War Orphans project.

The Long Way Home.
119 min., colour Examines the post World War II period between 1945 and 1948 and the plight of the tens of thousands of refugees who survived the Holocaust. The documentary looks at their (often illegal) attempts to get to Palestine and explores how nations were indifferent to these displaced people.

Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum, Poland

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

Canadian Immigration — Bill C-11, 2001

Care Canada

Citizenship & Immigration Canada. Forging Our Legacy: Canadian Citizenship & Immigration 1900-1977. Chapter 4, Immigration Slump.

Convention on the Rights of the Child

Doctors Without Borders

Leo's Journey

Nizkor: A Holocaust remembrance
Major archive for documents related to the Holocaust and Holocaust denial.

Pier 21, Halifax harbour, Canada

A Scattering of Seeds: The Creation of Canada.
Stories of various immigrant groups that settled Canada and shaped its future.

Simon Wiesenthal Center, Los Angeles, USA
Teaching resources and museum information.

United Nations High Commission on Refugees

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC, USA
Teaching resources and museum information.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Vancouver Holocaust Education Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Teaching resources and museum information

Yad Vashem — The Holocaust Martyrs' & Heroes' Remembrance Authority, Israel
Teaching resources and museum information.
These resources are designed to enrich the classroom use of Open Hearts, Closed Doors. Many of them are Acrobat pdf (printer description format) documents, ready for printing.

Teacher's Guide
Lesson ideas, discussion questions, extensions and supporting resources that relate directly to the orphans' narratives and the nine themes.

Artifacts Collections
These documents combine overviews and artifact facsimiles for each theme.

Orphans' Stories
The complete transcripts of all of the war orphans' memoirs.

The meaning and historical significance of terms that appear throughout Open Hearts, Closed Doors.

Books and Videos
A list of useful text and video resources that complement and enrich Open Hearts, Closed Doors.

Web sites that provide valuable information and resources.