of the most important advances in
surgery were anesthesia and antiseptic
technique. These dramatically reduced
the pain and infection associated
with operations. After their acceptance,
longer and more complicated surgeries
became possible, and a whole new set
of problems needed to be sorted out.
How can you work with the body cavity
open, without the blood starting to
clot? How can you work on the heart
that is constantly beating? How can
you see the tiny structures in order
to repair them?