T e a c h e r  C r e a t e d  L e s s o n

Advertising and propaganda: Canada and World War II

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UQO, Gatineau, Quebec

Target audience
Chosen program: Quebec Education Program

Grade 11

According to different provinces, it would be possible to do the project with a younger audience. But we have to keep in mind that both the subject and project ask for reflection and critical thinking that are more within the reach of high school students.
Skills
Pedagogical competencies:
- Examines social phenomena from a historical perspective;
- Interprets social phenomena using the historical method;
- Strengthens his/her exercise of citizenship through the study of history.

Program content:
- The modernization of Quebec society;
- 1939 – 1945: World War II;
- Interpreting a picture.

Cross-curricular competencies:
- Uses information;
- Exercises critical judgment;
- Uses creativity;
- Uses information and communications technologies;
- Cooperates with others;
- Communicates appropriately.
Tools needed
- Computers for all students;
- Internet connection;
- One computer and a projector (or an interactive whiteboard);
- Pen and paper to take notes;
- Access to the following websites:
- http://www.cbc.ca/documentaries/lovehatepropaganda/ww2_index.html
- http://www.cbc.ca/documentaries/lovehatepropaganda/ww2_index.html
- http://www3.nfb.ca/ww2/home-front/propaganda-the-battle-for-hearts-and-minds.htm
- Access to the following Internet tools (ICT):
- Popplet http://popplet.com;
- Pixlr http://www.moodshare.co/;
- Moodshare http://pixlr.com/express/.
Project presentation
The 20th century was strongly influenced by two world wars. While the First World War is known for the huge developments in the military, the Second World War is better recognized as a war on all fronts, very hard on the civilians. In this context, it was not uncommon for each country involved in the war to engage in propaganda extolling theirs results and achievements. Posters, advertisements, movies were all means to convince people to go to war and keep it going.

The present project aims to enable students to take a critical look at history, advertising, propaganda and media. To achieve this, students will be requested to create an advertisement or a propaganda tool to incite people to participate in the war effort by enlisting, working in factories or sending goods.
Instruction for the project
The project comprises 9 activities that lead to the creation of the poster. You can choose to do only some of them.

To complete this task, the student should follow these instructions:
- The poster has to be based on historical facts;
- The poster contain at least one historical reference;
- To achieve those criteria, the student has to take notes throughout all activities;
- The poster must respect the style of the time (World War II);
- The student must pay attention to the layout of the poster and to the quality of the language, which will be corrected;
- Racist or sexist remarks as well as gratuitous violence will not be tolerated.
Personal conceptions (Activity 1)
Through this project, students will be asked to work on historical facts tied to World War II and with different technological media. But first, students will need to refer to their prior knowledge and previous perceptions of World War II. To achieve this, they will have to use the following tool: Popplet http://popplet.com. This tool will allow students to create a concept map on a specific topic. They only need to register on the site (no cost required). The teacher will have to make a small demonstration of the tool and allow a period of discovery. Popplet is very user friendly.
Previous notions (Activity 2)
In order to assure that all students are on the same level of comprehension, the teacher will need to make a brief return on important facts and timeline of World War II. To do so, he/she can use different tools like history books and the following learning objects:
From War to War: 1918-1945
Royal Ontario Museum
© 2006, Royal Ontario Museum. All Rights Reserved.
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Learning Object Collection: Shaping Canada: Our Voices and Stories
Mobilization of Canadian Army Units
Canadian Heritage Information Network
© 2002, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.
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Institution: RCIP-CHIN
The End of the War
Canadian Heritage Information Network
© 2002, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.
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Learning Object: The End of the War
Institution: RCIP-CHIN
Modifications to the concept map (Activity 3)
After briefly reviewing World War II, students are invited to review the concept map they made earlier to readjust, if need be or to add information. This will be pursued on Popplet once again.
Definition of “propaganda” and “advertisement” (activity 4)
Propaganda is a set of various actions aimed to influence public perception of events, people or issues in order to indoctrinate or control a population so it acts and thinks according to a desired way. You can find propaganda in articles, posters and movies. In wartime, propaganda is used, among other ways, to dehumanize the enemy, to encourage the active participation in the war effort, to justify actions, to bring misinformation to the public, and to incite hatred. Advertising is a form of communication seeking to capture the attention of a targeted audience and encourage them to adopt a desired behavior. In wartime, advertising can easily look like propaganda. The teacher will start a discussion with students on these two topics: Have you ever seen or experienced propaganda? How do you feel in front of an advertisement? Students will then add relevant information in their Popplet.
Advertising or propaganda tools (Activity 5)
The teacher presents recruitment campaigns or advertisements used by the Canadian government during World War II. It is important that the teacher take the time to identify, with the students, the important elements that compose those posters. What is it that the government is trying to do? What is the purpose of that kind of advertising? Teachers will then find useful learning objects. After looking at those, students will go back in Popplet to complete their concept map with important elements. They can refer to the previous questions.
Recruiting Campaigns
Canadian Heritage Information Network
© 2002, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.
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Learning Object Collection: Canada's Remembrances: The War At Home
Learning Object: Join the Army
Institution: RCIP-CHIN
Join the Army
Poster
Gouache of Gaston Fiset “Join the Army”. Poster to encourage recruitment in Canadian regiments. ©Musée du Royal 22e Régiment.

Musée du Royal 22<sup>e</sup> Régiment.




© Musée du Royal 22<sup>e</sup> Régiment.
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Learning Object Collection: Canada's Remembrances: The War At Home
Learning Object: Join the Army
Institution: RCIP-CHIN
Recruits Wanted
painting
Watercolour painting, "Recruits Wanted", Fisher, Captain Orville Norman, 1941. (19710261-6343)

Canadian War Museum




© Canadian War Museum
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Learning Object Collection: Canada's Remembrances: The War At Home
Learning Object: Join the Army
Institution: RCIP-CHIN
Humourous Drawings
Drawing
Original ink cartoon drawings by J.A. Houston used in recruit training articles.

Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Regimental Museum and Archives




© Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Regimental Museum and Archives
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Learning Object Collection: Canada's Remembrances: The War At Home
Learning Object: Join the Army
Institution: RCIP-CHIN
War Bonds
Canadian Heritage Information Network
© 2002, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.
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Learning Object Collection: Canada's Remembrances: The War At Home
Learning Object: War Bonds
Institution: RCIP-CHIN
Women’s Corp Advertisement
Women’s Corp Advertisement
Small cardboard mini-display of a girl in a CWAC uniform used for recruitment purposes: "The Proudest Girl in Canada."

The Museum of the Regiments




© The Museum of the Regiments
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Institution: RCIP-CHIN
Newspaper Clipping: POW Escape
Newspaper Clipping: POW Escape
"Every German Had His Price: B.C. Boxer Tells of Life in Prison, Escaped Under Sentry's Nose." News clipping on Lieutenant Rex Carey, hand-dated July 12, 1945. Source of the article is unknown.

Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Regimental Museum and Archives.




© Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Regimental Museum and Archives
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Institution: RCIP-CHIN
"Wrens"
the Women's Royal Canadian Naval Service or "Wrens'' was a very important part of the Canadian naval war effort...
"Life With The WRENS is a Full and Satisfying Life: Join the Wrens and Release a Sailor Who Wants to Go to Sea." Women's Royal Canadian Naval Service Recruiting Poster.

The Naval Museum of Alberta




© The Naval Museum of Alberta
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Learning Object Collection: Canada's Remembrances: The War at Sea
Institution: RCIP-CHIN
News Clipping
News Clipping
News clipping from the scrapbook of a Canadian Women's Army Corps member: "Fathers and Daughters Serving Together in the Army.

The Museum of the Regiments




© The Museum of the Regiments
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Institution: RCIP-CHIN
Fathers and Daughters Serving Together in Army
Canadian Heritage Information Network
© 2002, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.
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Institution: RCIP-CHIN
Recruitment Handbill
Recruitment Handbill
Recruitment Handbill .

The Museum of the Regiments




© The Museum of the Regiments
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Institution: RCIP-CHIN
Transcript of Handbill
Canadian Heritage Information Network
© 2002, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.
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Institution: RCIP-CHIN
Love, hate and propaganda (Activity 6)
In order to develop more about the use of propaganda and advertising during World War II, the teacher can use the television show: Love, hate and propaganda. The website of the show offers many ressources on World War II (timeline, biographies, posters, etc.). Each episode lasts about 50 minutes and there are six of them. The teacher can choose segments or episodes that relate more to Canada. The second and fifth episode are the most significant, since one shows how propaganda is used to bring on the idea of war, and the second one covers more the use of propaganda in Canada.
Link to the website and end of activity 6
Links to the series and website:
http://www.cbc.ca/documentaries/lovehatepropaganda/ww2_index.html

After watching an episode or a segment, students are again invited to add important elements to their Popplet.
National Film Board of Canada (Activity 7)
The National Film Board of Canada (NFB) was created shortly after Canada declared war to Germany to respond to an urgent need of propaganda, among other reason. On their website, one can find clips of propaganda movies done by the NFB and posters, and read articles about how Canada used propaganda in World War II. It would be interesting to offer the students the possibility to discover the website by themselves. Afterwards, they will note the important elements they got from the website in Popplet.

You can find the website of the NFB at the following link:
http://www3.nfb.ca/ww2/home-front/propaganda-the-battle-for-hearts-and-minds.htm
Mood board creation (Activity 8)
When all previous activities are done, the teacher asks the students to form 4-member teams. Each team member then shows his Popplet in order to bring out the similarities and differences. The team will have to agree on what they want to keep as inspiration. The team will also need to produce a mood board with pictures, phrases, words that gives the direction of their project, using the following technological device: Moodshare http://www.moodshare.co/. The teacher will give a little demonstration on how the device works prior to creating the mood board and will allow students to play with it for awhile. The device is free but if it ever ends up costing money, students could use devices such as Word, PowerPoint or Paint to create their mood board.
Creating a poster (Activity 9)
When the mood board is done, the next step is to create an advertising or propaganda poster. It is important that each team gets a sheet with the instructions given earlier so they can make sure to follow them. To create the poster, each team will use Pixlr Express: http://pixlr.com/express/. This website is totally free and allows students to assemble pictures, create or add effects and text. Then, they save the image on the desktop of their computer. It is very important that the teacher insist on the copyright tied to images on the Web. Students must try to use images that are free of copyright or they will need to mention is rightful owner. When the project is done, the teacher can organize an exhibit of all posters and invites the whole school to see them.
Cannot have access to Internet tools ?
This project can also be done in a more traditional way. In this case, you will need the following tools: paper, printed images of World War II, glue, scissors, coloring pens, posters, etc. It would also be a good idea to facilitate the access to different sources where to find the information needed.

Learning Objectives

The learner will:
• build a network of conceptual knowledge in regard to World War II;
• analyze the important elements that compose World War II and the advertising and propaganda used during the war;
• assess the impact of propaganda and advertising on World War II;
• develop a critical look on what we see in the media.