M u s e u m  C r e a t e d  L e s s o n

Lesson 5: Timeline

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Pointe-à-Callière, musée d'archéologie et d'histoire de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec

Chronology of the Great Peace
Pointe-à-Callière, musée d'archéologie et d'histoire de Montréal.
© 2012, Pointe-à-Callière, musée d'archéologie et d'histoire de Montréal. All Rights Reserved.
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Learning Object Collection: The Great Peace of Montréal, 1701
Learning Object: Timeline
- A computer
- An Internet connection, to consult the virtual exhibition The Great Peace of Montreal 1701, (
- A Timeline
- Sheets of paper and pencils
Work method
Individually, as a class and in teams

Note to teachers
This lesson is intended to familiarize the students with the use of a variety of historic methods. They will have a chance to analyse historical documents and to use a timeline to place social realities in their proper context.
Quebec history didn’t start with Jacques Cartier’s arrival or the founding of Québec, but it is true that these events were of crucial importance, for both Natives and European colonists. In this lesson, you will be looking at the milestones in the history of relations between the French and Native populations in Eastern Canada. This will make it possible to place the events leading up to the signing of the Great Peace in 1701 in a broader historical context, that of the French Regime in New France.
Remind your students of the lesson objectives, using the introductory paragraph above:
1) to create an accurate timeline of the events leading to the signing of the Great Peace;
2) to place the Great Peace in a broader historical context;
3) to look at the milestones in the history of New France; and
4) to develop their historical method (by analyzing a historical document and preparing a timeline).
Step 1
Go to the exhibition website and have one student read out the account by Charlotte Gallard, a nursing sister. (
Step 2
Ask the class what the text tells us about the Great Peace timeline. Many different answers are possible, but they must include:
- A peace agreement was signed in 1700 between the Iroquois and the French.
- In early September 1701, about 800 Natives (“savages”) arrived in Montréal.
Step 3
Ask the students whether this coincides with what they know about the Great Peace. To help them find an answer, ask them to work in teams and consult the virtual exhibition website, in particular the “Events” tab in Theme 1, Act 1 (Alliances and Trade), which talks about the 1700 alliances, and in Theme 4, Act 2 (Montréal, August 1701). They should be able to confirm that peace agreements were signed in 1700 and should note that the first Natives arrived in Montréal in late July 1701. Since no numbers are given, it is possible that Charlotte Gallard’s figure of 800 Natives in September 1701 is accurate, although there is no way to confirm it.
Step 4
Ask the students to work in teams and use the virtual exhibition site to find other important dates for the 1701 peace treaty. They may come up with a variety of answers, and you should write them all down on the board.
Step 5
Once they have found the key dates, ask the students to work individually and put them on a timeline starting in 1534 and ending in 1763.
Step 6
Then ask the students to work individually or in teams and find several key dates in the history of New France. They must find most of the information they need on the virtual exhibition site:
– Founding of Québec
– Founding of Trois-Rivières
– Founding of Montréal
– Jacques Cartier’s first voyage
– Louis-Hector de Callière appointed Governor of Montréal
– Louis-Hector de Callière appointed Governor of New France
– Kondiaronk’s presumed birthdate
– Creation of the Covenant Chain (friendship chain linking the British and the Iroquois)
– Montréal taken by the British
– Treaty of Paris, putting an end to the French Regime
Step 7
Then ask the students to work individually and put all these dates on their timelines.
Step 8
Wrap up the lesson by briefly summarizing what the timeline tells the students about the French Regime (although Cartier arrived in 1534, the colony wasn’t developed until about 70 years later: a regime that ended with the British victory at the end of the Seven Years’ War).
Write a short (just a few lines) biography of Louis-Hector de Callière, focusing on his role in the signing of the 1701 peace treaty.

Learning Objectives

This lesson is intended for secondary three and four students. Its objective is to:
- familiarize the students with the timeline of the Great Peace of Montréal
- place the signing of the Great Peace in the broader historical context of the historic events that occurred in New France between the 16th and 18th centuries
- help the students interpret and understand certain milestones

Subject-specific competencies developed (SSC)
SSC 1: Examine social phenomena from a historical perspective
SSC 2: Interpret social phenomena using the historical method

Estimated time: 25 minutes