M u s e u m  C r e a t e d  L e s s o n

Lesson 3: The nations that signed the treaty in 1701, and today

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Pointe-à-Callière, musée d'archéologie et d'histoire de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec

Treaty of the Great Peace of Montréal
Traité de la Grande Paix de Montréal du secrétaire de Louis-Hector de Callière
Traité de la Grande Paix de Montréal du secrétaire de Louis-Hector de Callière

Louis-Hector de Callière secretary
Paper document



© 2012, Pointe-à-Callière, musée d'archéologie et d'histoire de Montréal. All Rights Reserved.
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Learning Object Collection: The Great Peace of Montréal, 1701
Nations of the Great Peace
Pointe-à-Callière, musée d'archéologie et d'histoire de Montréal.
© 2012, Pointe-à-Callière, musée d'archéologie et d'histoire de Montréal. All Rights Reserved.
View the complete media file

Learning Object Collection: The Great Peace of Montréal, 1701
Materials
- A computer
- An Internet connection, to consult the virtual exhibition The Great Peace of Montreal 1701, (http://198.50.156.175/)
- Sheets of paper and pencils
Work method
As a class and in teams

Note for teachers
Lesson No. 3 builds on lesson No. 2. After locating the French, British and main First Nations (the Iroquois League and the allied Great Lakes nations, in particular) on a map, and studying the trade relationships between them, in lesson No. 3 the students will learn more about each of the parties involved. As they learn about the main Native chiefs and the main representatives of the French and British crowns, they will develop SSC 2.
Introduction
Louis-Hector de Callière, Governor of New France, faced a tremendous challenge when he invited France’s allied and enemy First Nations to “bury the tomahawk” in Montréal on August 4, 1701. Negotiating with and encouraging more than thirty First Nations to sign a treaty, when some of them had still been enemies just a few years earlier, was no easy feat.
Procedure
Talk about how lesson No. 3 fits in with the others, explaining to your students that in lesson No. 1 they studied the geography of North America at the time of the Great Peace, in lesson No. 2 they looked at the trading relationships between the different parties who negotiated the 1701 agreement, and in lesson No. 3 they will be learning more about the politics of the different players.

Remind your students of the lesson No. 3 objectives:
1) to identify the main parties who signed the Great Peace of Montréal; and
2) to identify alliance networks and political tensions at the time.
Step 1
Go to the website at http://198.50.156.175/eng/rendez_vous_a_montreal-gathering_in_montreal/introduction-eng.html and, in teams or as a class, watch the video from the Great Peace virtual exhibition.
Step 2
Ask the students, as a class, which Native figure is mentioned in the video and which nation he belongs to (the Iroquois Aouenano).
Step 3
Ask them, in connection with the question they had to answer after lesson No. 1, whether Aouenano and his nation sided with the French or the British?

Answer: Aouenano would not have wanted to side with the French, because the Tsonontouans are traditionally allies of the British.
Step 4
Once again, present the two “clans”:
the French/Great Lakes nations on one side; and the British from the thirteen colonies/Iroquois on the other.

Point out that the entire second half of the 17th century was a time of intense rivalry between the Iroquois and the French (and their allies). The Great Peace negotiations were a way for both the Iroquois and the French to put an end to a period of constant tensions and to rebuild their strength in case the attacks resumed.
Step 5
Then divide the class into four teams and ask each team to present a detailed description of one of the key players:
- The French
- The British
- The Great Lakes nations
- The Iroquois Five Nations League
Step 6
Tell the students that as part of their presentation they will have to:
- Give an overall description of the group
- Show where it was located
- Give a detailed description of one of its political leaders (Native chief or governor)
- Identify one object related to this player (a wampum collar, a thimble, corn, moccasins, etc.)

Tell the different teams that they can find the information they need in the interactive records in the virtual exhibition.
Step 7
Ask the teams to present their findings to the class.
Step 8
Summarize the information they found, to ensure that the students understand who the different players were at the time when the Great Peace was signed.
Step 9
Wrap up the lesson by referring to the “from yesterday to today” part of the title.

Emphasize that you looked at the “historical” part in class and that they will have the “today” part (the question) as homework.

Then give them the “question,” and tell them that they can look for information to help them answer it on the Secrétariat aux affaires autochtones du Québec website:
(http://www.autochtones.gouv.qc.ca/relations_autochtones/profils_nations/profil_en.htm).
Question
The Huron-Wendats played a major diplomatic role in the Great Lakes region, even after Huronia was destroyed, as shown by Kondiaronk’s part in the negotiations. Describe the Wendats’ situation in modern-day Quebec by answering the following questions: what is the official name of their nation? What is the name of their reserve? What major city is it close to? How big is their population?

Learning Objectives

This lesson is intended for secondary three and four students. Its objective is to:
- familiarize the students with the main First Nations that signed the Great Peace of Montréal
- have them understand the late 17th-century political chessboard (diplomatic alliances, in particular)

Subject-specific competencies developed (SSC)
SSC 2: Interpret social phenomena using the historical method

Estimated time: 25 minutes