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Les impacts du chemin de fer

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Musée du Bas-Saint-Laurent, Rivière-du-Loup, Quebec

Les impacts du chemin de fer
Présentation du projet :

La leçon vise à faire réaliser les impacts de l’arrivée du chemin de fer et ses conséquences directes sur l’industrialisation et l’urbanisation.
Consignes du projet :
- Transcrivez les questions et les réponses sur un support informatique ou papier.
- Inscrivez toutes les informations sur une ligne du temps qui devra commencer en 1860 et se terminer en 1950.

Le réseau de l’Intercolonial

- Familiarisez-vous avec la carte géographique et repérez les frontières des provinces du Québec, du Nouveau-Brunswick et de la Nouvelle-Écosse.
- Situez les villes de Rivière-du-Loup, Halifax et Moncton, ainsi que la ligne de chemin de fer de l’Intercolonial.
- Quels sont les enjeux politiques de la création de l’Intercolonial ?
- Selon vous, quels sont les avantages de la création d’un lien ferroviaire avec les ports Atlantiques des Maritimes ?

- Comment le chemin de fer a-t-il favorisé la colonisation ?
General map of the Intercolonial Railway in 1876
Intercolonial Railway Map, 1876
The map shows the Intercolonial Railway line between Rivière-du-Loup and Halifax. This rail link was a political and economic issue for the new Dominion. Prime Minister John A. Macdonald promised to extend the railway to Halifax as a way of convincing the Maritime Provinces to join Confederation in 1867. The railway gave Canadians access to a vast market between the Great Lakes and the Atlantic ports.

Sandford Fleming
Map



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Learning Object Collection: The arrival of the railway
Intercolonial Railway map, Rivière-du-Loup sector
Intercolonial Map 1876
Starting in 1860, Rivière-du-Loup was the eastern terminus of the Grand Trunk line. Between 1869 and 1876, the Intercolonial Railway built the Rivière-du-Loup-Halifax line. It ran behind the lands of villages on the St. Lawrence as far as Sainte-Flavie Station, then wound southeast through the Matapedia Valley, hugged the Baie-des-Chaleurs, and continued southwards through New Brunswick near the coast.

Fleming, Sandford. The Intercolonial. Montréal, Dawson Brothers Publishers. 1876. 268 pages.
Map



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Learning Object Collection: The arrival of the railway
Map showing the Intercolonial Railway line between Moncton and Halifax
Intercolonial Railway map 1876
The trains of the Intercolonial Railway rounded the Baie-des-Chaleurs and continued down through New Brunswick to Moncton. After crossing Nova Scotia, they ended their journey at the port of Halifax.

Fleming, Sandford. The Intercolonial. Montréal, Dawson Brothers Publishers. 1876. 268 pages.
Map



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Learning Object Collection: The arrival of the railway
The railway bridges
Intercolonial Bridge Trois-Pistoles
On the railway line, teams of labourers built immense bridges of wood and iron, some of which presented daunting technological challenges. A good example is the railway bridge that crosses the entire 1000-foot breadth of the mouth of the Trois-Pistoles River, perched on five 100 foot-high pillars.

Sandford Fleming. The Intercolonial. Montréal, Dawson Brothers Publishers. 1876. P. 146.876. p.146
Lithograph



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Learning Object Collection: The arrival of the railway
Sandford Fleming, chief engineer of the Intercolonial
Sandford Fleming, chief engineer of the Intercolonial
From 1869 to 1876, the vast construction site of the railway is between Rivière-du-Loup and Halifax. Sandford Fleming, chief engineer, leads a team of surveyors and engineers who oversee the work. The distance is about 900 km.

Library and Archives Canada, C-001164
Photograph



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Learning Object Collection: The arrival of the railway
Les mouvements démographiques
Comme ailleurs au Canada et aux États-Unis, le développement des réseaux ferroviaires améliore grandement les échanges commerciaux et la libre circulation des personnes. À partir des années 1860, le chemin de fer du Grand Tronc facilite le déplacement de la population des milieux ruraux vers Montréal et les grandes villes manufacturières de l’Est des États-Unis. Dans la seconde moitié du 19e siècle, plusieurs régions québécoises, dont le Bas-Saint-Laurent, subiront les effets de cet exode rural. Pourtant, à la même époque, un autre phénomène d’immigration s’opère en faveur de quelques centres régionaux. Dès 1876, le chemin de fer de l’Intercolonial ouvre la voie à de nouveaux mouvements démographiques entre les provinces maritimes et le Québec.

- Quelles sont les origines et les confessions religieuses des travailleurs du chemin de fer à Rivière-du-Loup ?
- Quelle est selon vous la langue de travail des compagnies ferroviaires ?
- Faites une relation avec le présent.
The origins of the railway men
Extract of the census of Fraserville, Quebec, Canada, 1891
This extract of the census of the town of Fraserville contains information on the origins of the railway men, their place of birth, religion, and profession in 1891. The station and railway shops only hired men who had completed a recognized apprenticeship, and therefore, attracted skilled workers. Many of the mechanics, locomotive engineers, and brakemen who immigrated to the town were born in Ireland, England, Scotland, the Maritime Provinces, and the United States.

Library and Archives Canada, Temiscouata County, City of Fraserville, p. 110-111.
Archival document



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Learning Object Collection: The arrival of the railway
Census of Fraserville in 1891
Extract of the census of Fraserville, Quebec, Canada, 1891
William McNeil was twenty years old. He was a locomotive fireman and was born in Quebec. Benjamin Walker was thirty five, and was station agent for the Intercolonial Railway. He was born in Quebec, his parents were born in England, and his wife, Marguerite, was of Irish extraction. All were Protestant. William Walsh was a locomotive engineer. He was thirty-seven and was born in Nova Scotia. He was Catholic, as were his wife and their four children, two of whom were born in the United States.

Library and Archives Canada, Fraserville, Temiscouata County, 1891, p. 111.
Archival document



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Learning Object Collection: The arrival of the railway
Immigrant families
Scottish immigrant family, Rivière-du-Loup, 1904.
The jobs offered by the railway companies attracted immigrants of various origins. Many were of English or Scottish origin, and most were Protestant. They represented 8% of the population of Fraserville in the 1880s. If they wished to marry French-Canadians, Protestants were obliged to obtain a dispensation from the bishop of the diocese before the marriage could take place. This was a common situation in those days.

Fonds Stanislas Belle, Musée du Bas-Saint-Laurent, Frank King, b07655
Photograph



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Learning Object Collection: The arrival of the railway
L’industrialisation
Dans la seconde moitié du 19e siècle, la mécanisation et la révolution des moyens de transport sont les principaux facteurs responsables de l’industrialisation. Alors que l’économie était jusque-là concentrée sur la production agricole, les nouvelles manières de produire mettront à profit des systèmes mécaniques complexes, des machines utilisant le pouvoir hydraulique, la vapeur ou le charbon pour atteindre des nouveaux niveaux de production.

- Nommez des exemples de mécanisation du travail.
- Quel avantage le chemin de fer offre-t-il aux nouvelles entreprises manufacturières ?
- Que vous apprend l’observation de la photographie des ouvriers de l’usine ferroviaire ?
- D’après vous, quelles sont les conditions des employés d’usine à l’époque ?
- Pourquoi les employés des compagnies ferroviaires ont-ils de meilleures conditions de travail que les autres travailleurs ?
The railway men
Workers at the Intercolonial shops, Rivière-du-Loup, 1926
Workers of the Intercolonial Railway shops at Rivière-du-Loup in 1926. The railway machine shops were the town’s major employers. Maintaining the steam engines and the cars required mechanics, ironsmiths, and carpenters. At that time, the railway men’s working conditions were the envy of workers elsewhere. Their wages were competitive and they were even protected by union agreements.

Fonds Belle-Lavoie, Musée du Bas-Saint-Laurent, bl0039.
Photograph



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Learning Object Collection: The arrival of the railway
La naissance d’un nouveau quartier
Depuis le milieu du 19e siècle, les offres d'emploi en milieu urbain attirent la population des milieux ruraux, au Québec comme ailleurs au Canada et aux États-Unis. Le secteur de la gare des villes et villages traversés par le chemin de fer sera souvent le premier à subir une forte pression démographique.

- Nommez deux types d'entreprises commerciales qu'on retrouve dans le quartier de la gare.

- Quelles sont les transformations qui s'observent dans le secteur de la gare ?
The first station, in 1860
station, Grand Trunk, Rivière-du-Loup
The first station was built in 1860 in yellow brick from Scotland, above the big falls of the Rivière du Loup. This was the terminus of the Grand Trunk line arriving from Lévis. The village was mainly situated close to the St. Lawrence shore in those days, and few people lived in the area where the station was built. A locomotive repair shop, a structure to keep wood, a water tower, and a shed to store merchandise were the total installations at the time.

©Musée Mc Cord, William Notman, N-0000.193.53.2
Photograph



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Learning Object Collection: The arrival of the railway
The station area
Station, Rivière-du-Loup
In a few years, several neighbourhoods grew up near the station. Workers, businessmen, industrial leaders, and hotel-keepers first established themselves along Lake Temiscouata Road, which led to the railway installations, and later, on the other bank of the Rivière du Loup. The first streets were laid out in these sectors in the 1880s.

Fonds Belle-Lavoie, Musée du Bas-Saint-Laurent, bl1006.
Photograph



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Learning Object Collection: The arrival of the railway
The neighbourhood’s first streets
Rue Saint-André, Rue Saint-Elzéar, Rue Fraserville, Rue Témiscouata, Rivière-du-Loup
With the opening of the Intercolonial Railway line, the station was too small; in 1883, increased activity justified the construction of a new building. Since the arrival of the railway twenty year earlier, farm and woodland had given way to stores, hotels, and houses. The first streets of this sector were laid out along the Rivière du Loup and on the slope that rose behind the station.

Société d’histoire et de généalogie de Rivière-du-Loup, Fonds Société d’histoire
Photograph



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Learning Object Collection: The arrival of the railway
L’urbanisation
Le processus d’urbanisation amorcé dans la seconde moitié du 19e siècle poursuit sa progression au début du XXe siècle. Les villes industrielles connaissent une croissance sans précédent. Dans les quartiers ouvriers des grandes villes, les conditions de vie sont encore très difficiles et les services sanitaires très peu organisés. La croissance urbaine suit un rythme constant et atteindra son point culminant au milieu du XXe siècle.

- Comparez les pourcentages de la population urbaine du Bas-Saint-Laurent à la fin du 19e siècle et au milieu du XXe siècle.
- Quel est le pourcentage d’augmentation de la population régionale ?
Two neighbourhoods, two parishes, two churches
Saint-François-Xavier neighbourhood near the station, Rivière-du-Loup
Railway activity had a major impact on the area surrounding the station, which was completely transformed within a few decades. A veritable rail and business hub, the city of Rivière-du-Loup grew tremendously at the end of the 19th century. From 1881 to 1891, its population doubled, far surpassing that of other communities in the region. Growth continued at such a pace that in 1905, two new parishes were founded in the town, one on each side of the river.

Fonds Paul-Émile Martin, Musée du Bas-Saint-Laurent, m04052
Photograph



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Learning Object Collection: The arrival of the railway
Table of urban and rural population development of the Lower St. Lawrence, 1891-1951
Table of the urban and rural population of the Lower St. Lawrence
The region’s population doubled between 1891 and 1951. During this period, economic conditions encouraged the rise of several urban centres. The lumber and railway industries were the principal motors of this development. Forestry and agricultural products, as well as manufactured items, travelled by rail to distant markets from large and small stations in the region. In 1951, for the first time, the rural population numbered less than that of city dwellers.

Jean-Charles Fortin et al. Histoire du Bas-Saint-Laurent. Éditions Marquis, Montmagny, 1993. P.363




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Learning Object Collection: The arrival of the railway
Learning Object: Urbanization

Learning Objectives

-Comprendre le contexte politique et l’impact économique de la construction d’un réseau de chemin de fer dans l’Est du Canada.
-Observer les mouvements démographiques et le processus d’industrialisation dans la seconde moitié du 19e siècle.
-Approfondir les concepts d’industrialisation et d’urbanisation.
-Analyser des documents cartographiques et iconographiques.
-Interpréter un tableau.