M u s e u m  C r e a t e d  L e s s o n

Mining in New Brunswick

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New Brunswick Museum, Saint John, New Brunswick

Overview
The geologic history of New Brunswick has shaped our landscapes, communities and economy. The province as we know it was formed over the last billion years forged by moving continents, changing climates and complex geologic processes. Experience a journey through geologic time and discover how the magnificent rocks beneath us influence our lives.
Mining in New Brunswick
Students will explore community histories and gain an understanding of the mining industry on NB and Canada and its relationship to the creation of Canadian identity.
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Learning Object Collection: Magnificent Rocks
Lesson Plan: Mining in New Brunswick
Students will explore community histories and gain an understanding of the mining industry on NB and Canada and its relationship to the creation of Canadian identity.
View the Learning Object

Learning Object Collection: Magnificent Rocks
Abraham Gesner (1797-1864)
Black and white photograph of a man with whiskers
photograph: Abraham Gesner (1797-1864), c. 1870. Abraham Gesner is often considered a founder of the modern petroleum industry for developing a method to distill kerosene. Gesner used the bitumen albertite, from Albert Mines, as a resource.

Unknown
albumen print, mounted on card
25.4 x 15.8 cm
X10722

© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.
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Learning Object Collection: Magnificent Rocks
Learning Object: Mining in New Brunswick
Robert Foulis, Inventor
Black and white photograph of a man with a tophat
photograph: Robert Foulis, Inventor, c. 1860, 1932. Robert Foulis was talented man with a varied career. He is best known for inventing a steam powere foghorn. Foulis was involved in the mining of albertite at Albert Mines and once stated that he had used the bitumen to create an illuminating gas long before Abraham Gesner.

Unknown
letterpress halftone on wove paper
17.2 x 9 cm
1981.11.9

© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.
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Learning Object Collection: Magnificent Rocks
Learning Object: Mining in New Brunswick
Intercolonial Railway Bridge over the Nepisiguit River, New Brunswick
Black and white photograph of a railway bridge with granite piers over a river
photograph: Intercolonial Railway Bridge over the Nepisiguit River, New Brunswick, 1875. The Connolly Quarry (or Nepisiguit Quarry) near Bathurst is one of the oldest granite quarries in northern New Brunswick. It began operation in the 1860s. Some of the stone from this quarry was used to construct bridges for the Intercolonial Railway.

Alexander Henderson
albumen print, mounted on card
25.1 x 36.2 cm
23338.28

© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.
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Learning Object Collection: Magnificent Rocks
Learning Object: Mining in New Brunswick
Spoon Island, River Saint John, New Brunswick
Painting of river valley with islands, wharves and boats
painting: Spoon Island, River Saint John, New Brunswick, 1909. Looking north from Evandale, Kings County, toward Spoon Island, Queens County in the Saint John River at Hampstead. The granite quarry wharf is visible on the left.

John Christopher Miles (1832-1911)
watercolour over graphite, heightened with opaque white on textured wove paper, laid down on board
23.3 x 39 cm
A69.10

© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.
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Learning Object Collection: Magnificent Rocks
Learning Object: Mining in New Brunswick
Hampstead ‘granite’ Quarry, Evandale granodiorite, Hampstead, New Brunswick
Colour photograph of granite quarry with hammer to indicate scale of boulders
photograph: Hampstead ‘granite’ Quarry, Evandale granodiorite, Hampstead, New Brunswick, 2008. The Evandale Granodiorite quarried near Hampstead, can be seen in the foundations of historic buildings in Uptown Saint John, as foundation stones in the Hampstead area, and as monument stone.

New Brunswick Museum




© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.
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Learning Object Collection: Magnificent Rocks
Learning Object: Mining in New Brunswick
Finished Grindstones at Stonehaven, Gloucester County, New Brunswick
Black and white photograph of piles of grindstones
photograph: Finished Grindstones at Stonehaven, Gloucester County, New Brunswick, 1928. Quarries at Stonehaven were well known for producing quality grindstones and sharpening stones.

H. W. Beecher Smith
silver print
12.9 x 17.8 cm
1987.17.1142

© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.
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Learning Object Collection: Magnificent Rocks
Learning Object: Mining in New Brunswick
Halite: rock salt
Colour image of solid white rock
Halite: rock salt, Lower Carboniferous, Near Sussex, New Brunswick. Halite, sometimes known as rock salt, was deposited during the Carboniferous, when the Windsor Sea flooded low-lying areas of the Maritimes Basin in western New Brunswick. As sea levels changed in the Carboniferous period, the salt water evaporated, concentrating the minerals into potash, salt and gypsum.

Unknown

Specimen width 7 cm
NBME 1159

© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.
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Learning Object Collection: Magnificent Rocks
Learning Object: Mining in New Brunswick
Refined Lead Bar: lead ingot
Colour image of lead block stamped BM & S
Refined Lead Bar: lead ingot, Ordovician, Brunswick Mining and Smelting, New Brunswick. Brunswick Mining and Smelting is one of the largest lead and zinc producers in the world.

Brunswick Mining and Smelting

Specimen width 62 cm
NBME 1150

© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.
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Learning Object Collection: Magnificent Rocks
Learning Object: Mining in New Brunswick
Coal mining dragline in operation, Minto, New Brunswick
Colour photograph of large blue back-hoe digging coal
photograph: Coal mining dragline in operation, Minto, New Brunswick, c. 1988. Coal mining near Minto began as early as 1639.

New Brunswick Museum




© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.
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Learning Object Collection: Magnificent Rocks
Learning Object: Mining in New Brunswick
Miners at Albert Mines, Hillsborough, Albert County, New Brunswick
Black and white photograph of men with picks and shovels and loaded wagon of albertite
photograph: Miners at Albert Mines, Hillsborough, Albert County, New Brunswick, c. 1870. The bitumen called albertite created the mining community of Albert Mines. In the 1870s it was a busy community with mine shafts, a church, and houses for employees. Today all that remains are crumbling foundations.

Unknown
silver print
10.4 x 46 cm
X11628

© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.
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Learning Object Collection: Magnificent Rocks
Learning Object: Mining in New Brunswick
Plaster Mines, Hillsborough, New Brunswick
Black and white photograph of horse, wagon and two men
photograph: Plaster Mines, Hillsborough, New Brunswick, c. 1900. Gypsum deposits near Hillborough were important for its prosperity in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Unknown
gelatine silver print, mounted on card
20.3 x 27.5 cm
X11526

© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.
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Learning Object Collection: Magnificent Rocks
Learning Object: Mining in New Brunswick
Titanic Headstone, Part I
Dr. Barrie Clarke Department of Earth Sciences Dalhousie University, Halifax Dr. Randall Miller Research Curator, Geology and Palaeontology New Brunswick Museum
New Brunswick Museum
© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.
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Learning Object Collection: Magnificent Rocks
Learning Object: Mining in New Brunswick
Titanic Headstone, Part II
Dr. Barrie Clarke Department of Earth Sciences Dalhousie University, Halifax Dr. Randall Miller Research Curator, Geology and Palaeontology New Brunswick Museum
New Brunswick Museum
© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.
Play the Video File

Learning Object Collection: Magnificent Rocks
Learning Object: Mining in New Brunswick
Titanic Headstone, Part III
Dr. Barrie Clarke Department of Earth Sciences Dalhousie University, Halifax Dr. Randall Miller Research Curator, Geology and Palaeontology New Brunswick Museum
New Brunswick Museum
© 2013, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.
Play the Video File

Learning Object Collection: Magnificent Rocks
Learning Object: Mining in New Brunswick

Learning Objectives

Curriculum Outcomes:

1. demonstrate an understanding of the basic features of Canada’s landscape and climate: identify and locate major landforms of Canada, explain the creation and characteristics of mountains and plains, describe and account for the variation in physical landscape across Canada
2. analyze the effects of selected geographic factors on Canadian identity: describe where Canadians live and explain why communities are established and grow in particular locations, account for the variations in growth of settlements due to physical and human factors