The cage-crinoline was developed in France and patented in 1856.

Until this invention, the very full skirts of mid-19th century dresses were supported by three or four petticoats usually stiffened with horsehair. The cage-crinoline freed women from the weight of petticoats, but soon skirts became so wide that the wearer had trouble going through doors. Even to sit down required care, so the crinoline stayed in place and did not move up to reveal a lady's legs and undergarments.
Crinolines were manufactured commercially and were inexpensive to purchase.
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