Smoking caps were among the most popular accessories embroidered by bourgeois women as gifts.

Women's magazines featured needlework patterns for caps, slippers and many other accessories. Colourful accessories, including patterned dressing gowns, had been worn by European men since the 16th century, when trade with the East brought exotic luxuries such as rich silks to Europe.

Most upper-class Victorian homes had a "smoking room" where men could relax and enjoy the pleasures of a cigar and a brandy without offending the ladies of the house. The smoking cap protected a man's hair from the lingering aroma of tobacco.
McCord Museum of Canadian History

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