On the island of Newfoundland, Arctic hares have likely never been numerous. Restricted to the open barrens and alpine mountain areas, they are one of the province's most-threatened native mammals and few people have seen them. They are classified as 'uncommon' in the 2004 provincial conservation scheme. Parks Canada considers them 'rare' on the island and some biologists suggest that they are endangered.

In Gros Morne National Park, Arctic hares are a key species and their numbers are closely monitored. Estimates by Parks Canada put the number of Arctic hares in the Park at 870 in 2000, up from an estimate of 230 in 1997. It is assumed that the Arctic hare population on the island goes through a cycle of lows and highs.

In the 1970s, six Arctic hares were captured in southern Newfoundland and Labrador and released on Brunette Island off Newfoundland's south coast. They survived and bred and the population grew to more than 1000 hares. A program of capture, breeding and release of hares into their former range on the province's Avalon Peninsula was undertaken in the 1980s, but none of the releases led to a successful breeding population.
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