When continents or large land masses collide, the rock layers of the Earth’s crust are pushed up into mountains or folded and compressed into hills and valleys. These folds are called anticlines and synclines. The anticline is an upward-facing fold where the rock layers are progressively older towards the centre of the fold; the syncline is the downward-facing fold that has younger rock layers at its centre.

In southern and eastern Nova Scotia, most of the rock layers are slate or quartzite. The weathering of the anticlines and synclines exposes the gold-bearing quartz to the surface.

All of the gold in Nova Scotia was originally deposited in the deep ocean basins off the coast of North Africa about 500 million years ago. The collision between North America and North Africa 385 million years ago caused the rocks to squeeze and fold. Spaces were created between the folds in the rocks, allowing fluids rich in gold to flow through. Almost all of the gold in present day Nova Scotia is now found in these folds in the rocks.
Art Gallery of Nova Scotia, Dian Day, Susan Sellers, Rita Wilson

Nova Scotia, CANADA
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