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The coastal tundra ecosystem borders on Hudson Bay, and includes both low arctic tundra and taiga-tundra transition. The boreal forest ecosystem primarily consists of mixed and coniferous forest, with interspersed spruce-tamarack bogs. The farmland / parkland region consists chiefly of agricultural land, aspen parkland, riparian woodland, and pockets of boreal forest.

Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature

© 2009, CHIN-Canadian Heritage Information Network. All Rights Reserved.


The coastal tundra ecosystem of Manitoba borders on Hudson Bay, and includes both low arctic tundra and taiga-tundra transition. The region consists of many lakes, marshes, and bogs, as well as wet and dry tundra. Because a large part of this region consists of taiga-tundra transition, a wide diversity of plant species occur. The Black Spruce is the most common tree in the bogs, with White Spruce, Tamarack, and a number of willow species also quite common. Moving onto the tundra, mosses and lichens form widespread mats. During the very brief growing season in the summer, wild flowers grow and bloom within a few short weeks. Summers are cool, and last as little as 100 days with an average temperature of only 12 0C.

Winters are long and cold, with low temperatures averaging -28 0C. Hudson bay is usually ice-covered from November to late May or early June. The coastal tundra is also quite dry, receiving an average of 50 mm of precipitation during July, and only 15 mm during January.

Most birders traveling to this region will likely spend their time in Churchill, Manitoba and surrounding area. A separate checklist is available on this site for Churchill, and is s Read More
The coastal tundra ecosystem of Manitoba borders on Hudson Bay, and includes both low arctic tundra and taiga-tundra transition. The region consists of many lakes, marshes, and bogs, as well as wet and dry tundra. Because a large part of this region consists of taiga-tundra transition, a wide diversity of plant species occur. The Black Spruce is the most common tree in the bogs, with White Spruce, Tamarack, and a number of willow species also quite common. Moving onto the tundra, mosses and lichens form widespread mats. During the very brief growing season in the summer, wild flowers grow and bloom within a few short weeks. Summers are cool, and last as little as 100 days with an average temperature of only 12 0C.

Winters are long and cold, with low temperatures averaging -28 0C. Hudson bay is usually ice-covered from November to late May or early June. The coastal tundra is also quite dry, receiving an average of 50 mm of precipitation during July, and only 15 mm during January.

Most birders traveling to this region will likely spend their time in Churchill, Manitoba and surrounding area. A separate checklist is available on this site for Churchill, and is specific to that region of the coastal tundra. An excellent source of information for bird enthusiasts traveling to the coastal tundra is "A Birder’s Guide to Churchill", by Bonnie Chartier. This book will provide you with tourism information on Churchill and surrounding areas, as well as birding hotspots and a bird checklist. The book also provides species lists for the plants, mammals, amphibians, butterflies and moths of the Churchill region.

A checklist of bird species in the coastal tundra ecosystem in Manitoba can be found at:
http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/Exhibitions/Birds/MMMN/English/tundra.html

© 2009, CHIN-Canadian Heritage Information Network. All Rights Reserved.

Photo

Coastal Tundra ecosystem, Manitoba

Photo: Jack Dubois

© 2009, CHIN-Canadian Heritage Information Network. All Rights Reserved.


Covering the bulk of the province of Manitoba, the boreal forest ecosystem primarily consists of mixed and coniferous forest, with interspersed spruce-tamarack bogs. Also known as the taiga, this region extends into northern Manitoba where it meets the treeless coastal tundra along the coast of Hudson Bay. The southern limit of the boreal forest is less obvious, as it gradually grades into broadleaf deciduous forests, to parklands, and to grasslands, depending upon the regional climate. In the north, the boreal forest is more sparsely treed than in central and southern areas.

In terms of climate, most regions of the boreal forest may experience snow cover for more than 6 months of the year. Winters may see extremely low temperatures of -25 to -35 0C in the south, with northern regions occasionally reaching lows of - 45 0C. Summers may be extremely warm and humid at times, reaching highs of +30 to +35 0C.

A checklist of bird species in the boreal forest ecosystem in Manitoba can be found at:
http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/Exhibitions/Birds/MMMN/English/boreal.html
Covering the bulk of the province of Manitoba, the boreal forest ecosystem primarily consists of mixed and coniferous forest, with interspersed spruce-tamarack bogs. Also known as the taiga, this region extends into northern Manitoba where it meets the treeless coastal tundra along the coast of Hudson Bay. The southern limit of the boreal forest is less obvious, as it gradually grades into broadleaf deciduous forests, to parklands, and to grasslands, depending upon the regional climate. In the north, the boreal forest is more sparsely treed than in central and southern areas.

In terms of climate, most regions of the boreal forest may experience snow cover for more than 6 months of the year. Winters may see extremely low temperatures of -25 to -35 0C in the south, with northern regions occasionally reaching lows of - 45 0C. Summers may be extremely warm and humid at times, reaching highs of +30 to +35 0C.

A checklist of bird species in the boreal forest ecosystem in Manitoba can be found at:
http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/Exhibitions/Birds/MMMN/English/boreal.html

© 2009, CHIN-Canadian Heritage Information Network. All Rights Reserved.

Boreal Forest Ecosystem

Boreal forest ecosystem, Manitoba

Photo: courtesy of Darcy Pisiak
Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature

© 2009, CHIN-Canadian Heritage Information Network. All Rights Reserved.


The farmland / parkland region of Manitoba is located in the southwestern and south-central regions of the province. This ecosystem once included prairie habitat, particularly tallgrass prairie, but today consists chiefly of agricultural land, aspen parkland, riparian woodland, and pockets of boreal forest. Also within this ecosystem, we find the prairie pothole region of Manitoba. This world-renowned area, just south of Riding Mountain National Park, boasts some of the world’s most productive waterfowl nesting habitat.

Within the farmland / parkland region we find the Manitoba Escarpment, marked by the Turtle, Riding, Duck and Porcupine Mountains. These mountain regions are heavily wooded in aspen, birch and coniferous trees, and are surrounded primarily by farmland. To the east of the escarpment lie the Manitoba Lowlands, which boast some of the most productive farmland on the Canadian prairies. This wide variety of landforms on Manitoba’s prairies are a result of the Ice Age. Vast sheets of ice carved the present landscape, while melting glaciers deposited nutrient rich clays and silts in the area.

A checklist of bird species in the farmland/ p Read More
The farmland / parkland region of Manitoba is located in the southwestern and south-central regions of the province. This ecosystem once included prairie habitat, particularly tallgrass prairie, but today consists chiefly of agricultural land, aspen parkland, riparian woodland, and pockets of boreal forest. Also within this ecosystem, we find the prairie pothole region of Manitoba. This world-renowned area, just south of Riding Mountain National Park, boasts some of the world’s most productive waterfowl nesting habitat.

Within the farmland / parkland region we find the Manitoba Escarpment, marked by the Turtle, Riding, Duck and Porcupine Mountains. These mountain regions are heavily wooded in aspen, birch and coniferous trees, and are surrounded primarily by farmland. To the east of the escarpment lie the Manitoba Lowlands, which boast some of the most productive farmland on the Canadian prairies. This wide variety of landforms on Manitoba’s prairies are a result of the Ice Age. Vast sheets of ice carved the present landscape, while melting glaciers deposited nutrient rich clays and silts in the area.

A checklist of bird species in the farmland/ parkland ecosystem in Manitoba can be found at:
http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/Exhibitions/Birds/MMMN/English/parkland.html

© 2009, CHIN-Canadian Heritage Information Network. All Rights Reserved.

The Farmland/Parkland of Manitoba

Farmland/Parkland ecosystem, Manitoba

Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature

© 2009, CHIN-Canadian Heritage Information Network. All Rights Reserved.


Learning Objectives

The learner will:
  • Become familiar with the different ecosystems present in Manitoba;
  • Relate biodiversity of bird species to habitat.

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