Acadian Renaissance [Renaissance acadienne]: A period of Acadian history (late 19th century) characterized by a new collective awareness by Acadian society, by the establishment of its first colleges, the choosing of its national symbols and the emergence of a professional and commercial elite.

Bodice [Petit corset]: A woman’s undergarment, sleeveless and buttoned at the front, worn over the shift and under the mantelet.

Bolting cloth [Bluteau]: An implement used for the bolting of flour to separate it from the bran.

Break : This operation consists of breaking the brittle, woody centre of the flax stem while leaving the fibres unharmed. This is accomplished by placing a bundle of flax across the bars of a plax break and banging the knife down.

Buggy: A two-seat horse-drawn carriage.

“Câline”: A small cap covering the top of the h Read More
Acadian Renaissance [Renaissance acadienne]: A period of Acadian history (late 19th century) characterized by a new collective awareness by Acadian society, by the establishment of its first colleges, the choosing of its national symbols and the emergence of a professional and commercial elite.

Bodice [Petit corset]: A woman’s undergarment, sleeveless and buttoned at the front, worn over the shift and under the mantelet.

Bolting cloth [Bluteau]: An implement used for the bolting of flour to separate it from the bran.

Break : This operation consists of breaking the brittle, woody centre of the flax stem while leaving the fibres unharmed. This is accomplished by placing a bundle of flax across the bars of a plax break and banging the knife down.

Buggy: A two-seat horse-drawn carriage.

Câline”: A small cap covering the top of the head down to the ears. Made from cotton print or fine woollen fabric covered with ribbons.

Cannerie [Conserverie à homard]: An industrial plant where lobster was processed and put in metal cans.

Capine”: A large cotton bonnet with a fold-back flap. This flap was unfolded to protect from the sun when working outdoors.

Carting [Charroyage]: Action of moving or transporting something.

Cartwright [Charron]: A craftsman who built carts and other horse-drawn carriages.

Clapboards [Planches à clin]: Horizontal boards overlapping lower boards.

Exit valve or Flap [Clapet]: Moving part an aboiteau allowing the water to flow in only one direction.

Sleeper [Sole]: A horizontal piece of lumber, laid flat, on which the walls of a wooden house will rest.

Cloak [Mante]: A short, simple, full, sleeveless woman’s coat.

Clog [Sabot]: A shoe made of hollowed-out wood.

Cob or loam [Bauge]: A mortar made of earth and straw.

Sole plate or Wall plate [Sablière]: A large horizontal beam supporting other frame members.

Colombage”: The vertical members of a frame for a wall.

Distaff [Quenouille]: A small stick with a textile material wrapped around its upper end, which the women spun with a spindle or a spinning wheel.

Dormant line [Ligne dormante]: A line carrying from 400 to 600 hooks, which the fishermen let to rest on the sea floor, to catch codfish.

Double-decker stove [Poêle à deux ponts]: Cast iron stove with a closed cooking surface which could also be used as an oven.

Dove-tailed [Queue d’aronde]: A method of joining in which pieces of wood are finished in a bird’s tail pattern

Dowel or Pin [Cheville]: A roughly cylindrical and slightly tapering wooden peg used to join pieces of lumber.

Draw knife [Couteau à planer]: A long and narrow blade, with a handle on each end, used for finishing work on wood.

Drugget [Droguet]: A piece of fabric consisting of a cotton or linen warp and a wool weft.

Levee or Dyke [Levée]: Dam made of logs and clay, elevated along the shore and having to its basis the aboiteaux, serving to the drainage of the low earths in view of the culture.

Earth berm [Talus]: Sloping ground.

Embers [Maçonne or âtre du foyer]: A large fireplace made of stone and mortar found in old Acadian homes.

Enclosure [Bouchure]: Fence.

Étriquette”: A tool consisting of a wooden stick fitted with metal points, used to draw marks on a piece of wood to be cut into shingles.

Fabric [Fabrique]: Parish and church council.

Fiddler [Violoneux]: A violin player whose repertoire was essentially folkloric.

Fishing gear [Agrès]: Manoeuvring, lifting or stowing apparatus.

Flap front pants [Pantalon à clapet]: Trousers with a panel opening at the front.

Froe [Départoir or froe]: A long stout blade fitted with a handle set at a right angle, and which was struck with a mallet to split logs.

Frolic”: A gathering intended for rejoicing, especially after a bee.

Groove [Rainure]: A deep and flat moulding.

Grooved-pillar [Poteau à coulisse or poteau-coulisse]: A vertical frame member bearing a groove into which the wall pieces were set.

Grooving plane [Bouvet]: A plane used in making grooves.

Hackling: Separation of the fibres by combing.

Hay staddle: [Chafaud à foin]: A wooden rack installed on the marshlands and on which hay was piled until it could be stored in a barn in early winter.

Head-dress or Lawn coif [Coiffe en linon à barbes ou rubans]: A woman’s headdress in very fine white cotton and worn mainly by a bride. It is decorated with lace and handsewn motifs.

Indienne [Indienne]: Cotton material painted or printed with small patterns, made in India.

Jack plane [Galère]: A plane measuring between 12 and 18 inches, used for rough trimming and straightening pieces of wood of medium length.

Jacket [Frac]: A sort of long-sleeved woollen vest, worn by men.

Jigging line [Ligne à la main]: A line 100 to 200 feet long, carrying two hooks and a sinker, used for catching codfish.

Jointer plane [Varlope]: A long plane driven with both hands and measuring more than 20 inches in length, used to straighten long pieces of wood.

Joist [Solive]: A horizontal frame member supporting the floorboards.

Long-sleeved shift [Chemise de corps]: Woman’s undergarment, covering the body from shoulder to mid-calf.

Loyalists [Loyalistes]: Americans who migrated to Canada in order to remain loyal to the British crown, after the United States achieved independence.

Malecite [Malécite]: American Indian nation established along the Saint John River valley.

Mantelet”: A woman’s garment, a bodice of homespun or cotton with long straight sleeves.

Meadow [Pré]: In Acadia, marshland bordering the coastline, drained by means of aboiteaux and cultivated.

Micmac or Mi’kmaq [Micmac]: American Indian nation living in Nova Scotia and Eastern New Brunswick.

Miter [Onglet]: End of a plank or moulding cut to a 45 degree angle.

Mortice [Mortaise]: A notch made in a piece of wood to be fitted with a tenon.

Mortiser [Mortaiseuse]: A machine with which to cut mortices.

Moulding [Moulure]: A long and narrow piece of wood, bearing along its length raised and sunken flutings to give it a decorative look.

Ochre [Ocre]: Clay containing iron (red) or manganese (yellow) oxydes, used as a coloring agent.

Paisley [Paisley]: Ancient design resembling violin heads.

Panelling [Lambris]: Interior wall covering of a house.

Petticoat [Cotillon or jupon]: A woman’s undergarment, worn over the shift from the waist to the ankles.

Pièces sur pieces”: Construction of squared logs laid horizontally with their ends notched to fit one into the next.

Plane [Rabot]: A tool from 6 to 12 inches in length, used for shaping and smooth short pieces of wood and to dress the ends.

Platen press (printing) [Presse à platine]: A press on which the form is placed in a vertical position on the marble.

Pouch [Besace]: A pouch worn by women at the waist, under their skirt.

Rabbet plane [Guillaume]: A plane used for shaping rabbets (the groove in which doors and windows are set so that they will shut tightly).

Rafter [Chevron]: A frame member set on a slant and holding the roof.

Root cellar [Caveau à légumes]: A small outdoor cellar covered with a roof of wood and earth, used for storing vegetables.

Schooner [Goélette]: A two - or three- masted sail boat with fore-and-aft sails.

Screw-down press (printing) [Presse à vis]: A press on which the form is placed in a horizontal position on a table and the support applied to it by means of a lever and a threaded shaft.

Scutching: This operation consists of beating the flax against a board with a wooden knif until all the broken boon falls away and leaves the fibre on its own.

Solemn Communion [Grande communion solennelle]: A collective communion ceremony for adolescents.

Spar [Espar]: A long piece of wood used as a mast, a bowsprit or a yard.

Square net [Carrelet]: A net stretched on a wooden frame and tied to a pole, used for catching lobster.

To square wood [Équarrir]: To hew with an axe so as to give a square shape.

Slaughtering [Boucherie]: Slaughtering of farm animals for their meat, in particular pigs.

Stake [Palisson]: An iron instrument, shaped as a semi-circle, used to polish and soften leather and animal skin.

Storyteller [Conteux]: A person who tells from memory stories taken from tradition or from his own imagination.

Tenon”: The end of a shaped piece of wood, to fit in an opening known as a mortice.

Truss [Ferme]: An assembly of members forming the framework for a house’s attic or an infrastructure.

Trustee (in the school vernacular) [Syndic]: The term used in the old days to designate a member of a school board.

Vigneau” or “Vignot”: A rack used on which dressed and salted codfish were laid to dry.
* Note: [ ] indicates the French or Acadian appellation. “_” means that no specific English terminology exists, and therefore the French or Acadian one was use in the text.
© Village Historique Acadien, Province of New Brunswick, 2003. All Rights Reserved.

1604: Establishment of a settlement on St.Croix Island (Maine-New Brunswick border). Marks the founding of Acadia by Pierre du Gua, sieur de Monts, and Samuel de Champlain.

1605: Founding of Port-Royal, the first permanent settlement in Acadia.

1632: Isaac de Razilly undertakes the colonization of Acadia with a contingent of 70 settlers.

1713: The Treaty of Utrecht confirms the definitive defeat of Acadia by England after several wars and its conquest in 1710 over France.

1755: Beginning of Deportation and exile of Acadians, mainly to the British American colonies. Continues until 1763.

1763: France loses Canada for good with the Paris Treaty. Acadia will therefore remain forever British.

1784: Following the final victory of the American colonies over England, the province of New Brunswick is created by British Loyalists on the territory which has been, since 1764, the New Acadia of Acadians returned from exile.

1848: After a 64-year wait, the first Acadian member is elected to the province of New Brunswick Legislative Assembly. His name is Armand Landry.

1864: Founding of St-Jo Read More
1604: Establishment of a settlement on St.Croix Island (Maine-New Brunswick border). Marks the founding of Acadia by Pierre du Gua, sieur de Monts, and Samuel de Champlain.

1605: Founding of Port-Royal, the first permanent settlement in Acadia.

1632: Isaac de Razilly undertakes the colonization of Acadia with a contingent of 70 settlers.

1713: The Treaty of Utrecht confirms the definitive defeat of Acadia by England after several wars and its conquest in 1710 over France.

1755: Beginning of Deportation and exile of Acadians, mainly to the British American colonies. Continues until 1763.

1763: France loses Canada for good with the Paris Treaty. Acadia will therefore remain forever British.

1784: Following the final victory of the American colonies over England, the province of New Brunswick is created by British Loyalists on the territory which has been, since 1764, the New Acadia of Acadians returned from exile.

1848: After a 64-year wait, the first Acadian member is elected to the province of New Brunswick Legislative Assembly. His name is Armand Landry.

1864: Founding of St-Joseph College in Memramcook, a forerunner of the Université de Moncton.

1867: Publication of the Moniteur Acadien, the first Acadian newspaper.

1871: Beginning of a school crisis in New Brunswick concerning French and religious teaching in Acadian schools, culminating with the death of Louis Mailloux and a young Scottish militiaman during a skirmish in Caraquet in 1875.

1881: First National Convention of Acadians in Memramcook (New Brunswick). August 15, Assumption Day, is chosen as the Acadian National Holiday.

1884: Second National Convention. This time, a flag and a national anthem are chosen. These two symbols, the Ave Maris Stella and the French Tricolor flag adorned with a yellow star in Papal colors and representing the Virgin Mary, emphasize the attachment of Acadians to their religion.

1955: Multiple activities mark the bicentennial of the Deportation.

1960: Louis J. Robichaud becomes the first Acadian to be elected Premier of the province of New Brunswick.

1963: Establishment of the University of Moncton, which is the largest French-Canadian university outside of Quebec.

1969: New Brunswick becomes the only officially bilingual Canadian province.

1977: First season of operation of the Village Historique Acadien.

© Village Historique Acadien, Province of New Brunswick, 2003. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives

The learner will:
  • use the glossary to learn more about Acadia;
  • organize in a timeline the major events of Acadia history (first settlers, Deportation …).

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