The artist Cornelius Krieghoff was born in Holland and lived in Canada from 1839 until 1854. His paintings depict scenes of the lives of Canadians from this period. The National Gallery of Canada has many canvasses by this well-known painter.
The artist Cornelius Krieghoff was born in Holland and lived in Canada from 1839 until 1854. His paintings depict scenes of the lives of Canadians from this period. The National Gallery of Canada has many canvasses by this well-known painter.

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

“The Ice Bridge at Longue-Pointe” by Cornelius Krieghoff

Cornelius Krieghoff
National Art Gallery of Canada

© National Art Gallery of Canada


This painting is characteristic of many of Krieghoff’s landscapes, which show the lives of the local habitants of an identifiable region. The flat, open areas around the sled and the profile of Mount Royal across the river, as well as the title, identify this scene as being in the Montreal area. Krieghoff’s winter landscape provides the appropriate setting for the figures and sled. He often depicted this type of outdoor scene, in which the habitants are seen to be conversing casually in the midst of a realistic landscape.

The precise description of the clothing, the sleighs and equipment, and the animals gives us a visual inventory of the details of the travellers’ journey. The heavy-set workhorses pulling the families and the low-slung, rough wooden sleds in which they are riding were normally used to haul loads over heavily snowed areas. The width of the sleds and their runners ensured maximum stability, and helped to push the snow out of the way of the sled. The sled on the left in this painting is called un traîne à batons and would be used for heavy loads such as wood or ice. The sled on the right, called a berlot, sits slightly high Read More
This painting is characteristic of many of Krieghoff’s landscapes, which show the lives of the local habitants of an identifiable region. The flat, open areas around the sled and the profile of Mount Royal across the river, as well as the title, identify this scene as being in the Montreal area. Krieghoff’s winter landscape provides the appropriate setting for the figures and sled. He often depicted this type of outdoor scene, in which the habitants are seen to be conversing casually in the midst of a realistic landscape.

The precise description of the clothing, the sleighs and equipment, and the animals gives us a visual inventory of the details of the travellers’ journey. The heavy-set workhorses pulling the families and the low-slung, rough wooden sleds in which they are riding were normally used to haul loads over heavily snowed areas. The width of the sleds and their runners ensured maximum stability, and helped to push the snow out of the way of the sled. The sled on the left in this painting is called un traîne à batons and would be used for heavy loads such as wood or ice. The sled on the right, called a berlot, sits slightly higher and was used to carry occupants or delivery men with their goods.1 The dangling blue or red ribbons decorating the horses’ bridles were part of a recognized rural fashion, called étalage à fetons.2 This kind of equipment and decoration can be contrasted with the sleds and horses in Krieghoff’s paintings of the bourgeoisie, which depict high, finely finished sleds with lean and elegant trotters pulling their exhilarated and well-dressed occupants over the ice. The sleds in these works have fine, narrow runners and were better suited to city streets which were cleared of snow.

This type of outdoor gathering scene was derived from a seventeenth-century tradition that was enjoying a revival throughout Europe and North America in the nineteenth century. Krieghoff found his inspiration for this scene from a painting he saw in the Louvre museum by Petter Gabriel Wickenberg, called German Winter Scene: A Prussian Forester Talking to Children in a Sleigh. Krieghoff painted a copy of Wickenberg’s work which he exhibited at the Montreal Gallery of Pictures in 1847. He went on to do many variations of this theme.

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

This Quebec region is depicted in the Krieghoff painting, “The Ice Bridge at Longue-Pointe”:

1. The Outaouais
2. Montérégie
3. Montreal

This Quebec region is depicted in the Krieghoff painting, “The Ice Bridge at Longue-Pointe”:

1. The Outaouais
2. Montérégie
3. Montreal

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

The "A.E.A. Silver Dart", the first powered aircraft to fly in Canada, took off for the first time from Baddeck, Nova Scotia on February 23, 1909. The Canadian Aviation Museum features a replica of this aircraft. The founder of the association that built the original Silver Dart was also the inventor of the telephone.

Who was he?
The "A.E.A. Silver Dart", the first powered aircraft to fly in Canada, took off for the first time from Baddeck, Nova Scotia on February 23, 1909. The Canadian Aviation Museum features a replica of this aircraft. The founder of the association that built the original Silver Dart was also the inventor of the telephone.

Who was he?

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

plane

The A.E.A. Silver Dart

The Canadian Aviation Museum

© The Canadian Aviation Museum


Period: Pioneer Era Uses: Anniversary Replica First Flight: December 6, 1908 (original) Display Status: On the Museum Floor
The original Silver Dart was built by the Aerial Experiment Association formed by Alexander Graham Bell. The first controlled powered flight in Canada occurred February 23, 1909 when the Silver Dart was flown off the ice at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, by the designer J.A.D. McCurdy. Even though the Silver Dart was an experimental aircraft, an attempt was made to sell the aircraft to the Canadian Army. For various reasons this was unsuccessful.

The Silver Dart is a canard or “elevator in front” design. Like most aircraft of the time, it appears to have had poor control characteristics. It was made of steel tube, bamboo, friction tape, wire, wood, had no brakes, and was covered with rubberized silk balloon-cloth. The museum replica is covered with doped linen. The first passenger flight in Canada was made in the Silver Dart on August 2, 1909.
  • Period: Pioneer Era
  • Uses: Anniversary Replica
  • First Flight: December 6, 1908 (original)
  • Display Status: On the Museum Floor

The original Silver Dart was built by the Aerial Experiment Association formed by Alexander Graham Bell. The first controlled powered flight in Canada occurred February 23, 1909 when the Silver Dart was flown off the ice at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, by the designer J.A.D. McCurdy. Even though the Silver Dart was an experimental aircraft, an attempt was made to sell the aircraft to the Canadian Army. For various reasons this was unsuccessful.

The Silver Dart is a canard or “elevator in front” design. Like most aircraft of the time, it appears to have had poor control characteristics. It was made of steel tube, bamboo, friction tape, wire, wood, had no brakes, and was covered with rubberized silk balloon-cloth. The museum replica is covered with doped linen. The first passenger flight in Canada was made in the Silver Dart on August 2, 1909.

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

The founder of the association that built the original Silver Dart was:

1. Frederick Banting
2. Reginald Fessenden
3. Alexander Graham Bell
The founder of the association that built the original Silver Dart was:

1. Frederick Banting
2. Reginald Fessenden
3. Alexander Graham Bell

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Objects we use in our daily life are made of plastic, metal, ceramics or composites. The Materials exhibition at the Canada Science and Technology Museum presents how, over the last hundred years, materials have changed the way we live.

Some materials are magnetic and some are not. Which of the following is magnetic? Gold, iron, or wood?
Objects we use in our daily life are made of plastic, metal, ceramics or composites. The Materials exhibition at the Canada Science and Technology Museum presents how, over the last hundred years, materials have changed the way we live.

Some materials are magnetic and some are not. Which of the following is magnetic? Gold, iron, or wood?

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Magnets can be made by placing a magnetic material such as iron or steel, in a strong magnetic field. Permanent, temporary and electromagnets can be made in this manner.

The atoms forming materials that can be easily magnetized such as iron, steel, nickel, and cobalt are arranged in small units, called domains. Each domain, although microscopic in size, contains millions of billions of atoms and each domain acts like a small magnet. If a magnetic material is placed in a strong magnetic field, the individual domains, which normally point in all directions, gradually swing around into the direction of the field. They also take over neighbouring domains. When most of the domains are aligned in the field, the material becomes a magnet.
Magnets can be made by placing a magnetic material such as iron or steel, in a strong magnetic field. Permanent, temporary and electromagnets can be made in this manner.

The atoms forming materials that can be easily magnetized such as iron, steel, nickel, and cobalt are arranged in small units, called domains. Each domain, although microscopic in size, contains millions of billions of atoms and each domain acts like a small magnet. If a magnetic material is placed in a strong magnetic field, the individual domains, which normally point in all directions, gradually swing around into the direction of the field. They also take over neighbouring domains. When most of the domains are aligned in the field, the material becomes a magnet.

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

The magnetic material is:

1. Gold
2. Iron
3. Wood

The magnetic material is:

1. Gold
2. Iron
3. Wood

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

It is thought that most diamonds were created relatively soon after land was formed, during or immediately after the time of the formation of the continents. Canada’s diamonds formed under archons. Archons are thick and stable parts of the earth’s crust that date back more than 2,5 billion years. The Canadian Museum of Nature has received seven diamonds from Canada’s first diamond mine, in operation since late 1998.

What element is diamond made of?
It is thought that most diamonds were created relatively soon after land was formed, during or immediately after the time of the formation of the continents. Canada’s diamonds formed under archons. Archons are thick and stable parts of the earth’s crust that date back more than 2,5 billion years. The Canadian Museum of Nature has received seven diamonds from Canada’s first diamond mine, in operation since late 1998.

What element is diamond made of?

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Macle diamond crystal on crushed kimberlite

Canadian Museum of Nature

© Canadian Museum of Nature


Most diamonds probably formed relatively soon after the formation of the Earth, during or shortly following the formation of the continents. Canada’s diamonds formed under archons, which are thick and stable parts of the crust that are older than 2.5 billion years. Here, in the mantle 200 km or more beneath the (current) surface, a very particular balance of high pressure (about 5,520,000 kpa, or 800,000 psi) and high temperature (from 1100°C to 1482°C, or 2012° to 2700°F) allowed diamond to crystallize from carbon

Diamond is made of carbon atoms that have been arranged in a very tightly bonded and compact structure. This structure is made possible by the unique characteristics of carbon atoms, combined with the extreme conditions of the location. While diamond can tolerate some impurities (like oxygen), and they are common, too much will prevent the mineral from forming. Also, changes in temperature or pressure can cause the atoms to reabsorb or realign, thereby ’disassembling’ the diamonds.
Most diamonds probably formed relatively soon after the formation of the Earth, during or shortly following the formation of the continents. Canada’s diamonds formed under archons, which are thick and stable parts of the crust that are older than 2.5 billion years. Here, in the mantle 200 km or more beneath the (current) surface, a very particular balance of high pressure (about 5,520,000 kpa, or 800,000 psi) and high temperature (from 1100°C to 1482°C, or 2012° to 2700°F) allowed diamond to crystallize from carbon

Diamond is made of carbon atoms that have been arranged in a very tightly bonded and compact structure. This structure is made possible by the unique characteristics of carbon atoms, combined with the extreme conditions of the location. While diamond can tolerate some impurities (like oxygen), and they are common, too much will prevent the mineral from forming. Also, changes in temperature or pressure can cause the atoms to reabsorb or realign, thereby ’disassembling’ the diamonds.

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Diamond is made of:

1. Zinc
2. Carbon
3. Potassium

Diamond is made of:

1. Zinc
2. Carbon
3. Potassium

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

National Gallery of Canada
This Quebec region is depicted in the Krieghoff painting, “The Ice Bridge at Longue-Pointe”:
3. Montreal

Canadian Aviation Museum
The founder of the association that built the original Silver Dart was:
3. Alexander Graham Bell

Canada Science and Technology Museum
The magnetic material is:
2. Iron

The Canadian Museum of Nature
Diamond is made of:
2. Carbon
National Gallery of Canada
This Quebec region is depicted in the Krieghoff painting, “The Ice Bridge at Longue-Pointe”:
3. Montreal

Canadian Aviation Museum
The founder of the association that built the original Silver Dart was:
3. Alexander Graham Bell

Canada Science and Technology Museum
The magnetic material is:
2. Iron

The Canadian Museum of Nature
Diamond is made of:
2. Carbon

© 2001, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives

The learner will:
  • Relate intriguing facts about Canada
  • Increase their interest in Canadian history and culture
  • Gain an appreciation for the variety of museums in Canada

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